Chapter 51: Animal Behavior Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 51: Animal Behavior Deck (89):
1

behavior

action carried out by muscles under control of nervous system in response to a stimulus

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why is behavior subject to natural selection?

it plays a role in survival, reproduction, and anatomy

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Niko Tinbergen's first question to understand behavior

1. What stimulus elicits behavior, what physiological mechanisms mediate the response?

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Niko Tinbergen's second question to understand behavior

2. How does animal's experience during growth and development influence the response?

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Niko Tinbergen's third question to understand behavior

3. How does behavior aid survival and reproduction?

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Niko Tinbergen's fourth question to understand behavior

4. What is behavior/s evolutionary history?

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proximate causation

how a behavior occurs/is modified (Tinbergen's first two questions)

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ultimate causation

why behavior occurs (Tinbergen's second two questions)

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behavioral ecology

study of ecological and evolutionary basis for animal behavior

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fixed action pattern

sequence of unlearned acts directly linked to a simple stimulus

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qualities of fixed action patterns

unchangeable
carried to completion once initiated

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sign stimulus

external cue that triggers the behavior

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migration

regular, long-distance change in location

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circadian clock

internal mechanism that maintains 24 hour cycle

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some animals can sense position in relation to

Earth's magnetic field

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circannual rhythms

behavioral rhythms linked to seasonal cycle

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circannual rhythms influenced by

period of daylight and darkness

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signal

stimulus transmitted from one animal to another

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communication

transmission/reception of signals

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stimulus response chain

response to each stimulus is the stimulus for the next behavior

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four types of communication

visual
chemical
tactile
auditory

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Karl von Frisch

studied behavior of honeybees to decipher communication between bees about direction/location of food

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pheromones

chemical substances that allow animals to communicate through odors or taste

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pheromones are commonly related to

reproductive behavior among mammals and insects

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pheromones can serve as

alarm signals

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innate behavior

behavior that is developmentally fixed

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cross-fostering study

young of one species is placed in care of adults of another species

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cross-fostering study answers

Tinbergen's second question

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twin study

influence of genetics and environment in humans observed by studying twins raised apart vs. together

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learning

modification of behavior based on specific experiences

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imprinting

formation of long-lasting behavior at a specific stage in life to a particular individual or object

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sensitive (critical) period

limited developmental phase during which imprinting can occur

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imprinting stimulus is _______ response is _______

external
innate

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Konrad Lorenz

geese imprinted on him instead of their mother
showed no recognition of their biological mother

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pair-bond

strong attachment among mates

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how can pair-bond be missing

when species are raised by foster species

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spatial learning

establishment of a memory that reflects environment's spatial structure

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example of spatial learning

digger wasps memorize location of burrow relative to landmarks

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cognitive map

representation in nervous system of spatial relationships between objects in animal's surroundings

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associative learning

ability to link one environmental factor to another based on experience

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classical conditioning

arbitrary stimulus associated with particular outcome

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example of classical conditioning

Pavlov's dog

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operant conditioning

associate behaviors with award of punishment

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why can't some animals make certain connections
(say they can link bad taste with a certain color but not a certain smell)

the relationship was unlikely to happen in nature therefore natural selection did not make it happen

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cognition

process of knowing that involves awareness, reasoning, recollection, and judgement

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problem solving

cognitive activity of devising a method to proceed from one state to another in the face of obstacles

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social learning

learning through observing others

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culture

system of information transfer through social learning or teaching that influences behavior of individuals in a population

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changes as a result of culture occur how compared to changes as result of natural selection

much quicker

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foraging

food obtaining behavior

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fruit fly foraging in low population densities

traveling short distances is more beneficial (forS allele)

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fruit fly foraging in high population densities

traveling long distances to get food is more beneficial (forR allele)

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foraging behavior must compromise between

benefits of nutrition and cost of obtaining food

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cost

energy spent getting food and risk of being eaten

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optimal foraging model

natural selection should favor foraging behavior that minimizes cost and maximizes benefits

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risk of predation influences

behavior

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promiscuous

no strong pair-bonds

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monogamous

one male and one female, usually morphologically alike

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polygamous

one individual of one sex and many of the other, usually morphologically different

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polygyny

many females
males are dimorphic, showy

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polyandry

many males
females are dimorphic, showy

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sexual dimorphism

extent to which males and females differ in appearance

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certainty of paternity

how sure the male can be that his mate is carrying his offpsring

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certainty of paternity plays role in

mating behavior and parental care

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certainty of paternity is low in

internal fertilization

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certainty of paternity is high in

external fertilization

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intersexual selection

members of one sex choose mate based on characteristics of the other sex

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intrasexual selection

competition between members of one sex for mates

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ornaments

sign of health and vitality

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why does imprinting influence female's attraction towards ornaments?

females imprint on appearance of father

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mate-choice copying

behavior in which individuals in population copy the mate choice of others

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why is mate-choice copying beneficial?

mating with males that other females find attractive increases chance that offspring will be found attractive and pass on genetic info

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agonistic behavior

ritualized contest between males in which winner gets access to resource (usually food or mates)

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game theory

evaluates alternative strategies in situations where outcome depends on strategies of all individuals involved (like rock, paper, scissors)

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fru

gene that controls courtship behavior in fruit-flies

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case study of garter snakes

coastal snakes eat banana slugs; inland snakes do not
some could smell some couldn't, gene of smelling was passed on and they followed the source of food to the coast

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altruism

behavior that reduces individual fitness but increases fitness of other individuals in the population

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example of altruism

Belding's ground squirrel gives call when predator is potted - warns others but gives away location

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inclusive fitness

total effect an individual has on proliferating its genes by producing offspring and aiding relatives to allow them to produce offspring

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factors of inclusive fitness

benefit to recipient
cost to altruist
coefficient of relatedness

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cost (C)

how many fewer offspring the altruist produces

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benefit (B)

average number of extra offspring that beneficiary produces

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coefficient of relatedness (r)

fraction of genes that are shared on average between beneficiary and offspring

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Hamilton's rule

rB > C
natural selection favors altruism when benefits are greater than costs

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kin selection

natural selection that favors altruistic behavior by enhancing reproductive success of relatives

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recipricol altruism

altruism that occurs between unrelated individuals with the expectation that it will be returned in the future

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cheating

not returning favors to individuals who have been helpful in the past

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tit-for-tat

if one individual cheats, the altruistic individual retaliates but becomes cooperative when the other cooperates

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sociobiology

certain behavioral characteristics exist because they are expressions of genes that have been perpetuated by natural selection