Physical & Chemical Examination of Urine Flashcards Preview

Urinalysis & Body Fluids > Physical & Chemical Examination of Urine > Flashcards

Flashcards in Physical & Chemical Examination of Urine Deck (96)
Loading flashcards...
1

Why analyze urines?

fluid biopsy of kidney
noninvasive means to evaluate kidney
readily available
urine is ultrafiltrate of plasma

2

First morning specimen

most concentrated; often preferred specimen
most acidic- formed elements are better preserved

3

Random specimen

for routine screening
can be affected by excess fluid intake or exercise

4

Timed specimen

collections for predetermined length of time or at a specific time of day
primarily used for chemistry testing

5

Midstream 'clean catch'

for bacterial cultures or to prevent vaginal contamination
begin urination into toilet, collect midstream portion in container, finish voiding in toilet

6

Catheterized specimen

requires collection by medical personnel
sterile catheter insterted through urethra into bladder

7

Suprapubic Aspiration

requires collection by medical personnel
involves puncturing of abdominal wall & distended bladder by using needle & syringe
normally sterile
used for cultures or in infants (anaerobic infections)

8

Pediatric collections

plastic urine collection bag attached to perineal skin
routine testing

9

Reasons for specimen rejection

unlabeled/ mislabeled
mismatch of specimen name with order
inappropriate collection technique
not properly preserved
time delay in receipt of specimen
visibly contaminated
insufficient volume

10

Containers

clean, dry, clear, sterile containers

11

preservation of samples

preserve specimen if not processed in 2 hours or more

12

pH change after 2 hours at RT

increased pH because of the break down of urea into ammonia by bacteria

13

glucose change after 2 hr at RT

decreased
glycolysis & bacterial utilization

14

ketone change after 2 hr at RT

decreased
volatilization of compounds

15

bilirubin change after 2 hr at RT

decreased
exposure to light

16

urobiliogen change after 2 hr at RT

decreased bc of oxidation to urobilin

17

nitrite change after 2 hr at RT

increased or decreased
bacterial reduction to nitrate or all the way to nitrogen gas

18

bacteria change after 2 hr at RT

increased

19

color change after 2 hr at RT

varying changes due to oxidation or reduction of metabolites

20

turbidity change after 2 hr at RT

increased bc bacterial growth & precipitation of amorphous material

21

sediment change after 2 hr at RT

disintegration bc of dilute alkaline urine

22

most common preservation technique for urines

REFRIGERATION!!
should not be used for routine testing if urine will be analyzed within 2 hr

23

other urine preservatives

10% formalin
thymol/toluol
boric acid
NaF

24

urine color

due to the presence of urochrome- by product of bilirubin

25

foam

not normally included on report forms
stable white foam indicates large amounts of albumin
yellow foam is increased bilirubin

26

causes of cloudiness

contamination from skin, vaginal secretions, bacterial growth or fecal material
precipitation of dissolved solutes, x-ray contrast media
RBCs, WBCs, clots, casts

27

normal daily volume

600-1800 ml/day

28

polyuria

>3L per day of urine

29

oliguria

<400 mL per day

30

anuria

0 mL per day