Physical examination findings Flashcards Preview

Cardiology > Physical examination findings > Flashcards

Flashcards in Physical examination findings Deck (14):

What is the changes in JVP seen during inspiration in a healthy person? Give the reason.

The JVP normally falls with inspiration due to decreased intrathoracic pressure


What is Kussmaul's sign?

It is a paradoxical rise in JVP on inspiration, or failure in the appropriate fall of JVP with inspiration.


What are the waves seen in a jugular pulse tracing?

a wave, v wave and occasionally c wave


When do the waves in a jugular pulse tracing occur in?

a wave is from right atrial contraction.
v wave is from right atrium filling when the tricuspid valve is closed.
c wave is seen when the tricuspid valve closes.


How is pain caused by venous insufficiency relieved?

Pain caused by venous insufficiency is often relieved by walking or by elevating the legs. Compression stockings usually ameliorate the pain.


What is pectus excavatum?

Funnel chest: It is a posterior displacement of the lower sternum


What is pectus carinatum?

Pigeon chest: It is a deformity of the chest characterised by a protrusion of the sternum and ribs.


What is the temperature of the skin of the affected region in Peripheral Arterial Disease and in Peripheral Venous Disease?

In Peripheral Arterial disease, the temperature is normal or cool.
In Peripheral Venous disease, the temperature is normal or increased.


Name 6 ischaemic signs of lower limb PAD

absence of hair, thin skin and brittle nails
Cold and pallor
Pulse may be diminished or absent


What are the 6 signs of acute limb ischaemia?

The 6 P's:
Paraesthesia (loss of light touch sensation over the forefoot/dorsum of hand)
Pain on squeezing muscle (indicative of impending muscle infarction)
Perishing cold

There may also be absence of hair, thin skin and brittle nails


Name the alternative diagnosis for chest pain: cardiovascular.

Pericarditis, Aortic dissection, Aortic stenosis, Myocarditis


What are the alternative diagnosis for chest pain: respiratory

Pulmonary embolism, Pneumothorax, Lung cancer, Pleurisy


What are the alternative diagnosis for chest pain: Musculoskeletal

fractured/bruised rib, Tietze's syndrome (Costochrondritis), Muscle strain/tear


What are the differential diagnosis for chest pain: GI

Gastro-oesophageal reflux, Oesophageal spasm, Peptic ulcer disease, Pancreatitis, Cholecystitis