How do you convert from cm to m?

divide by 100

what are the units for energy?

Joules

How do you convert oC into K

+273

What is work done

the energy transferred from one store to another

In the equation for work done

Delta W = F x Delta s

What does F stand for?

Force

In the equation for work done

Delta W = F x Delta s

What does Delta s stand for?

change in displacement

In the equation for work done

Delta W = p x Delta V

What does p stand for?

pressure

In the equation for work done

Delta W = p x Delta V

What does Delta V stand for?

Change in volume

what is the equation for kinetic energy?

0.5 x mass x velocity squared

what is the equation for elastic energy?

0.5 x spring constant x extension squared

what is the equation for gravitational potential energy?

GPE= gravity x height x mass

what is the definition for power?

power is the amount of energy transferred per second

what is the equation for power?

power = work done divided by time

or

power = energy transferred divided by time

what is the equation for pressure?

pressure= force divided area

described what the origin of gas pressure is

particles that have a lot of kinetic energy causes the particles to collide which exerts a force on each other and on the container

In the ideal gas equation:

pV = NkT

What does T stand for?

temperature

In the ideal gas equation:

pV = NkT

What does N stand for?

number of particles

In the ideal gas equation:

pV = NkT

What does V stand for?

volume

In the ideal gas equation:

pV = NkT

What does p stand for?

pressure

what is the equation for Boyles law?

pressure x volume = constant

what is thermal equilibrium?

when all states within a system are at the same temperature

define temperature

the measure of average kinetic energy of particles

The formula for energy transferred when a substance changes temperature is given by:

Delta Q = m x c x Delta T

What does Delta T mean?

change in temperature

The formula for energy transferred when a substance changes temperature is given by:

Delta Q = m x c x Delta T

What does c mean?

specific heat capacity

The formula for energy transferred when a substance changes temperature is given by:

Delta Q = m x c x Delta T

What does Delta Q mean?

change in heat or energy transferred

The formula for energy transferred when a substance changes temperature is given by:

Delta Q = m x c x Delta T

What does m mean?

mass

In the equation for energy transferred when a substance changes state:

Delta Q = m x L

What does L stand for?

Specific latent heat

What is the definition for specific heat capacity?

the energy required to change the temperature of 1 kg of substance by 1K

what is the definition of specific latent heat ?

the energy required to change state of 1kg of substance

What is Latent fusion?

Change of state between solid and liquid e.g melting and freezing

What is latent vaporisation?

Change of state between liquid and gas e.g boiling and condensing

What is internal energy?

the sum of kinetic and potential energy of particles

In the equation for the first law of thermodynamics:

Delta U = Q - W

What does W mean?

work done by the system

In the equation for the first law of thermodynamics:

Delta U = Q - W

What does Q mean?

Heat added to the system

In the equation for the first law of thermodynamics:

Delta U = Q - W

What does Delta U mean?

Change in internal energy

What is an adiabatic reaction? (3 factors)

no net transfer of heat -

Q = 0

Fast process

What is an isothermal reaction? (3 factors)

constant internal temperature

slow temperature change

Q = W

What does the 2nd law of thermodynamic state?

entropy (measure of disorder) always increases

The diagram shows a carnot cycle

Label 4 –> 3

adiabatic compression

The diagram shows a carnot cycle

Label 1 –> 4

isothermal compression

The diagram shows a carnot cycle

Label 2 –> 1

adiabatic expansion

The diagram shows a carnot cycle

Label 3 –> 2

Isothermal expansion

What does boyles law state?

that N and T are constant and that P and V are constant

What is the definition of elasticity?

the ability for an object to stretch and return back to its original state once the force is removed

What does Hooke’s Law state?

states that force and extension are directly perportional

In the equation for Hooke’s law?

F = k x Delta x

What does k mean?

Spring constant

In the equation for Hooke’s law?

F = k x Delta x

What does F mean?

Force

In the equation for Hooke’s law?

F = k x Delta x

What does Delta x mean?

Extension or change in length

How can you tell from a graph that a material is obeying Hooke’s law?

The line is straight

For a force-extension graph what does the gradient show?

shows the spring constant

For a force-extension graph what does the area below the graph show?>

Shows how much work is being done

On the graph what does point E label?

breaking point

On the graph what does point B label?

elastic limit

On the graph what does point A label?

limit of proportionality

Define stress?

The force per unit area of a material

What is the equation for stress?

stress = force / cross sectional area

What is the unit for stress?

N/M2

Define strain?

extension per unit length

What is the equation for strain?

extension / original length

What is the unit for strain?

no unit

What is the equation for young’s modulus?

E= stress / strain

Define young’s modulus?

measures stiffness of the material (stiffness constant)

Look at the stress/stress diagram. Which line represents a elastic material

C

Look at the stress/stress diagram. Which line represents a brittle material

B

Look at the stress/stress diagram. Which line represents a ductile material

D

What does the gradient represent on the young’s modulus

it represents how stiff the material is

Up to what point of the youngs modulus apply to ?

the limit of proportionality.

Define brittle?

hard but liable to break (little or no plasticity)

Define ductile?

the ability to be shaped by plastic flow under tension

Define creep deformation?

slow version of plastic deformation but at a high temperature

Define malleable?

ability to be shaped by plastic flow under compression

Define fatigue?

weakness in a metal or other materials caused by repeated variations of stress

Define ultimate tensile stress?

highest stress a material can sustain just before it breaks

Define yield strength?

The stress at which plastic deformation starts

Define density?

amount of substance per unit volume

In the equation for density

p = m / V

what does V stand for? What are the units?

volume, m^{3}

In the equation for density

p = m / V

what does m stand for? What are the units?

mass, kg

In the equation for density

p = m / V

what does p stand for? What are the units?

density, kg/m^{3}

Define fluid

a substance that has no fixed shape and yields easily to an external force

Describe a laminar flow?

- parallel path flows -slow and constant -less air resistance

Describe a turbulent flow?

-irregular flow -fast but inconsistent -more air resistance

Describe viscosity?

the state of being thick, sticky, and semi-fluid in consistency

What is the unit for viscosity?

kgm-1s-1

What are the 3 factors that affect viscosity?

-temperature -molecular structure -pressure

How does temperature affect viscosity of a liquid?

as temp increases the viscosity of the liquid lowers as it becomes easier for molecules to slide past each other

how does temperature affect a gas?

the increase in kinetic energy created collisions

What are newtonian fluids?

-predictable response to force -consistent viscosity

What are non-newtonian fluids?

-unpredictable response to force -inconsistent viscosity

Describe diliant (shear-thickening) how does the viscosity change?

changes viscosity when a force is applied viscosity rises with a rise in shear strain

Describe pseudoplastic (shear-thinning) how does the viscosity change?

when you apply a force it gets thinner viscosity decreases with a rise in shear strain

Describe rheopectic how does the viscosity change?

-time dependent when applying stress fluid gets thicker when no stress it starts to get thin -more viscous when stressed

Describe thixotropic how does the viscosity change?

-fluids thin gradually on stirring then slowly reset -less viscous overtime when stressed

Describe Bingham plastics how does the viscosity change?

-behaves like a solid at low stress but above a yield stress they begin to flow -solid at low stress and as a viscous fluid at higher stress

How do you convert from MW to W?

x 1000000

How do you convert from km to m?

/ 1000

How do you convert from mW to W?

/ 1000

How do you convert from GJ to J?

x 1000000000

What is the unit for power?

Watts

What is the unit for work done?

Joules (J)

Name two units for pressure?

Pa and N/m^{2}

What is the unit for force?

Newton (N)

What three factors affect gas pressure?

temperature, volume of gas and number of particles

In which state do particles have the most kinetic energy?

gas

In which state do particles have the least kinetic energy?

solid

In which state do particles have the most internal energy?

gas

In which state do particles have the strongest intermolecular forces?

solid