Physio 1 Flashcards Preview

MS1 Unit 8 > Physio 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Physio 1 Deck (14):
1

chorionic gonadotrophin

HCG, secreted by fetal placental unit. stimulates corpus luteum to produce estrogen and progesterone during early pregnancy

2

human placental lactogen

HPL, a peptide with growth hormone and prolactin-like actions

3

hormones (definition)

blood borne polypeptides, amines, or steroids that bind with high affinity to specific receptors

4

steroid hormones

diffuse through cell membranes to a receptor in the cytoplasm or nucleus. regulate gene transcription and respond in hours to days

5

peptide-amine hormones

secreted in vesicles, bind to receptors on cell membranes. signal transduction cascades affect a bunch of cell processes. reponse time of seconds to minutes

6

pseudohypoparathyroidism

alterations in G proteins that sometimes affect certain signaling systems. key defect is an abnormality in a stimulatory alpha subunit of a heterotrimeric G protein. causes lack of ability of PTH to regulate body calcium and phosphorous homeostasis

7

hypothalamic-pituitary axis

exerts central control over multiple endocrine organs. hypothalamus has neural connections to the posterior pituitary, and only is connected to the anterior lobe through specialized blood vessels

8

short loop feedback

anterior pituitary hormones feeding back on hypothalamus

9

long loop feedback

feedback of hormones released from peripheral glands onto the hypothalamic-pituitary axis

10

prolactin

under tonic inhibitory control by dopamine. if stalk of pituitary is severed, prolactin increases. TRH stimulates prolactin release. performs negative feedback on itself through short loop pathway. can increase prolactin with a dopamine receptor antagonist.

11

oxytocin

promotes milk let down and uterine contractions. neuropeptide. can be secreted in response to sight, smell, or sound of an infant, and orgasm. cells that make this are in the paraventricular nuclei

12

ADH

major regulator of body fluid osmolarity. increases secretion in response to an increase in serum osmolarity. (water deprivation). promotes water reabsorption through receptor V2. causes contraction of vascular smooth muscle by stimulating V1.

13

central diabetes insipidus

failure of posterior pituitary to secrete ADH

14

hypopituitarism

insufficiency of pituitary to release hormones or insufficiency of hypothalamic-releasing hormones. clinical findings show deficiencies in one or more of ACTH, TSH, FSH, LH, and ADH. treatment is hormone replacement therapy