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Sem. B - Pharmacology > Physiological Response > Flashcards

Flashcards in Physiological Response Deck (27)
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1

Amiodarone Hydrochloride

  • ​Acts to stabilise and reduce electrical irritability of cardiac muscle
  • Lengthens cardiac action potential
  • Prolongs QT interval on ECG

 

2

Adrenaline 1:10,000

  • A sympathomimetic that stimulates(agonist) both alpha- & beta-adrenergic receptors
  • Blood flow is enhanced during CPR which becomes more effective due to increased peripheral resistance which improves perfusion pressures

3

Adrenaline 1:1000

-RR

+BP

-HR

  • Reverses allergic manifestations of acute anaphylaxis
  • Relieves bronchospasm in acute severe asthma
  • Dilation of bronchioles
  • Constriction of blood vessels

4

Aspirin

  • Antiplatelet action stops platelets & thrombin aggregating, discouraging further clot formation

5

Atropine Sulfate

  • Reverses effects of vagal overdrive
  • Increases heart rate by blocking vagal activity in sinus bradycardia, second or third degree heart block
  • Enhances A-V conduction
  • Cardiac output increases

6

Benzylpenicillin Sodium

  • Narrow-spectrum antibiotic
  • Destroys bacteria by breaking down their cell walls

7

Chlorphenamine

+BP

-HR

-RR
 

  • Antihistamine that blocks the effect of histamine released during a hypersensitivity (allergic) reaction
  • reduces:
    • vasodilation
    • hypotension
    • tachycardia
    • bronchoconstriction
    • flushing
    • headache

8

Dexamethasone

-RR

  • Corticosteroid - reduces subglottic inflammation

9

Diazepam

-BP

-HR

-RR

  • Central nervous system depressant
  • Anticonvulsant
  • Sedative
  • Muscle relaxant
  • Lowers BP

10

Ipratromium Bromide

-HR

-RR

+BP

  • Antimuscarinic bronchodilator providing short-term relief in asthma
  • Greater benefit in:
    • children suffering acute asthma
    • adults suffering COPD

11

Glucagon

+BM

-HR

+RR

+BP

  • Blood glucose levels rise in the systemic circulation

12

Glucose 10%

+BM

-HR

+RR

+BP

  • Reversal of hypoglycaemia by direct delivery of glucose to the systemic circulation

13

Glucose 40% (oral gel)

+BM

-HR

+RR

+BP

  • Rapid increase in blood glucose levels via buccal absorption

14

Glyceryl Trinitrate (GTN)

+HR

-BP

  • Potent vasodilator drug resulting in:
    • Dilation of coronary arteries/relief of coronary spasm
    • Dilation of systemic veins resulting in lower pre-load
    • Reduced blood pressure

15

Hydrocortisone

+/-HR

+BP

+BM

  • Glucocorticoid drug that restores BP, blood glucose, cardiac synchronicity & volume
  • Supression of inflammation & immune response

16

Ibuprofen

-TEMP

-HR

  • Analgesic (relieves pain)
  • Antipyretic (relieves temperature)
  • Anti-inflammatory (reduces inflammation)

17

Midazolam (pt own)

-BP

-RR

-HR

  • Short-acting benzodiazepine
  • Anxiolytic, sedative & anticonvulsant properties
  • usually active within 5 mins of buccal administration
  • Sedative effect decreases from 15 mins onwards

18

Morphine Sulfate

-BP

-RR

-HR

  • Strong opioid analgesic
  • Produces sedation, euphoria & analgesia
  • Cardiovascular & respiratory depression
  • Can induce hypotension
  • Histamine is released following morphine administration which may contribute to vasodilatory effects, urticaria & bronchoconstriction that are sometimes seen

19

Naloxone Hydrochloride (Narcan)

+RR

+GCS

  • Complete or partial reversal of the respiratory depression effects of opioid drugs
  • Increase in respiratory rate
  • Increase in level of consciousness

20

Nitrous Oxide (Entonox)

-HR

  • Inhaled analgesic agent
  • Decrease in perceived pain

21

Ondansetron

  • anti-emetic that blocks 5HT receptors both centrally and in the GI tract

22

Oxygen

  • Essential for cell metabolism
  • Reversal of hypoxia

23

Paracetamol

-TEMP

-HR

  • Analgesic (relieves pain)
  • Antipyretic (relieves temperature)

24

Salbutamol

-RR

-BP

+HR

  • Selective ß2 adrenoreceptor stimulant
  • Relaxant effect on the smooth muscle in medium & smaller airways(bronchioles) which spasm in acute asthma attacks

25

Sodium Chloride 0.9%

  • Increases vascular fluid volume which consequently raises cardiac output and improves perfusion

26

Syntometrine

  • Stimulates vasoconstriction & muscular contraction in the uterus

27

Tranexamic Acid

  • Anti-fibrinolytic which reduces the breakdown of blood clots