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Flashcards in Physiology 2 Deck (61)
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1

What foreign compounds do the kidneys excrete

Drugs and their metabolites
food additives
pesticides

2

What metabolic waste do the kidneys excrete

Urea, bilirubin and uric acid

3

What is bilirubin a byproduct of

Haemoglobin

4

What is uric acid a byproduct of

purine metabolism

5

What is urea a byproduct of

protein metabolism

6

Why can we never completely turn of urine production

we have to get rid of some metabolic wastes in the solution

7

What does renin do

control the renin-angiotensin system and controls arterial blood pressure

8

What do we do in response to hypoxia

Increase the secretion of erythropoietin to bring about more RBC production

9

Why do we need calcitriol

To stimulate calcium absorption in the GI tract

10

How is vitamin D converted into Calcitriol

The OH group added by either the liver or by cells in the kidney

11

What is the primary function o the kidney

to regulate the volume, composition and osmolarity of the body fluids

12

How do we maintain homeostasis in the body

Input = Output

13

What is the major loss of water from the body

Urine

14

Where are the kidneys located

Between T12 and L3

15

What helps the smooth muscle of the ureter to propel urine for the kidney down to the bladder

Peristalsis

16

What does the urinary bladder act as

A temporary store vessel for urine until there is an appropriate time to expel the urine

17

What is the renal medulla made up of

several renal pyramids

18

What appearance does the renal cortex have

granulated appearance

19

How much do the kidneys receive of the cardiac output

20-25%

20

What appearance does the renal medulla have

Striped or striated

21

What is a nephron

The functional unit of the kidney

22

How many nephrons does each kidney have

about 1 million

23

What are the 3 functional mechanisms of the nephron

filtration
reabsorption
secretion

24

What does the filtration form

the initial tubular fluid at the start of the nephron

25

What does the tubular fluid lack compared to the plasma

The large plasma proteins and red blood cells

26

Describe the vascular supply to the nephron

Initially an afferent arteriole which subdivides into a glomerulus (tuft) which then drains back into an efferent arteriole
Unique to anywhere else in the body

27

Where does the blood go after passing through the peritubular capillaries

Renal vein

28

What is the tubular component of the nephrons made up

single epithelial cell wall

29

What happens between the glomerulus and the Bowman's capsule

Glomerular filtration

30

What is the loop of Henle made up of

descending and then ascending limbs