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Flashcards in Histology Deck (50)
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1

What are the 3 main functions of the kidney

Maintain water and electrolyte homeostasis, body fluid osmolarity and acid-base balance
2. Excrete toxic metabolic waste products (mainly urea and creatinine)
3. Act as an endocrine gland, producing renin and erythropoietin

2

What covers the kidney

A thin but strong capsule of dense collagen fibres

3

What is the hilum

Site of entry of renal artery and exit of renal vein and ureter

4

What is the medulla divided into

medullary pyramids with apices (papillae) pointing toward the hilum ending on minor calyces

5

Where exactly does urine evolve from

The papillae

6

What does the renal column do

Anchors the cortex to the medulla and provides a convenient way for the vasculature to reach the cortex

7

What is the nephron composed of

renal corpuscle
renal tubules

8

What is the renal corpuscle

a know of blood vessels surrounded by a capsule (Bowman's)

9

How many nephrons are found within each human kidney

600,000-1million nephrons

10

What are podocytes

Specialised epithelium which lies on top of the glomerular capillaries

11

What separates the blood from the glomerular filtrate

Capillary endothelium and podocytes

12

What do the podocytes form

Filtration slits as the podocytes have interdigitating cell processes

13

What is found between the podocytes and capillary epithelium

thicker than usual basal lamina made up of GAGs

14

What produces the mesangium and what is it

Scattered mesangial cells produce
It is a connective tissue core

15

What are the functions of the mesangial cells

Support
removal of debris

16

What type of cells line the Bowman's capsule

stratified squamous epithelium

17

Describe the walls of the renal capillaries

Fenestrated walls

18

What is the function of a Proximal convoluted tubule cell

Recapsures glucose, peptides, small proteins and many other items from the filtrate

19

What lines the proximal convoluted tubules

Stratified squamous epithelium

20

Describe the appearance of the Loop of Henle

Begins as a thin descending limb then changes direction like a hair pin and ascends before widening out and continue ascending

21

What is the main role of the loop of Henle

It creates a high osmotic pressure in the extracellular space of the medulla with salts and urea but does not actually change the volume of within the tubule

22

Describe the appearance of the thin limb of the loop of Henle

Thin, simple squamous lining in which the nuclei typically protrude into the lumen

23

Describe the appearance of the thick limb of the loop of Henle

Simple cuboidal epithelial cells with abundant mitochondria

24

What cells line the collecting ducts

Simple cuboidal

25

What tubule is the metabolically busiest cell in the Loop of Henle

Thick ascending limb

26

What is the Vasa Recta

Loops of blood vessels that dip down into the medulla from above and then climb back up to the cortex

27

Where are the distal convoluted tubules located

In the cortex

28

What lines the distal convoluted tubules

simple cuboidal epithelium

29

How are the structures of the proximal and distal convoluted tubules different

Distal lacks a brush border of extensive microvilli
Therefore they have a relatively smooth surface in comparison

30

What are the medullary rays

Parallel arrays of tubules that head towards the medulla from the cortex