What is pathophysiology?
How disordered physiology results in illness, and how the body reacts with molecular, cellular and systemic responses that are the signs and symptoms of the disease
monovalent cations: +1 charge (H+, Na+)
divalent cations: +2 charge (Ca++, Mg++)
monovalent anions: -1 charge (Cl-, OH-)
Which are the fluid compartments of the body?
Extracellular fluid (interstitial, blood plasma)
Which are the lipid compartments of the body?
What is the percentage of total body water for a person?
What is the percentage of total body weight of the body compartments?
Intracellular fluid: 40%
Extracellular fluid: 20% (interstitial fluid: 16%, plasma: 4%)
What is the fraction of total body water of the different compartments?
Intracellular fluid: 2/3
Extracellular fluid: 1/3
Epithelial compartments produce specialized environments (i.e: Blood vessel endothelium: plasma; blood-brain barrier: cerebrospinal fluid)?
Epithelial compartments may produce excretory products (i.e.: Kidney: renal filtrate (urine), Lacrimal glands: tears)?
What is the total body water volume of a 70kg, 25 year-old normal healthy male?
What is the intracellular fluid volume of a 70kg, 25 year-old normal healthy male?
7.35 - 7.45
pH < 7.35
pH > 7.45
What is homeostasis?
The regulation of the internal environment within a normal physiological range
What is the normal range of glucose in the blood?
70 - 99 mg/dL
What does the endothelium of the capillaries do?
Keeps proteins inside the plasma
How do ions cross the plasma membrane?
Via ion channels and other transport proteins
Is Potassium concentration higher inside or outside the cell?
inside (it diffuses out)
Is Sodium concentration higher inside or outside the cell?
outside (it diffuses in)
Is Calcium concentration higher inside or outside the cell?
outside (it is pumped in)
Is Chloride concentration higher inside or outside the cell?
In diffusion there is a net movement of molecules ____ a concentration gradient.
Which is the law of diffusion?
Fick's Law of Diffusion
Diffusion rate = -P A (C2 - C1)
P = permeability of the membrane and is affected by membrane resistance, thickness, size and solubility of the molecule (bigger = slower), and temp (hotter = faster)
A = surface area
(C2 - C1) = concentration gradient across the membrane (higher gradient = faster diffusion)
Cells specialized to absorb molecules have?
Microvilli to increase the surface area for absorption (which has a glycolayx tp trap nutients, protext against toxic substances, or adhere to substances and enhance uptake)