Flashcards in Physiology: Introduction into Anatomy of Lungs, Blood Supply and Airways Deck (20)
What are the function of the Respiratory System?
1. Gas exchange
2. Acid-base balance
3. Communication via speech
4. Protection from infection
Vessels involved in the pulmonary circulation?
Pulmonary artery and pulmonary vein
Gas exchange in the pulmonary circulation?
Delivers CO2 to the lungs and picks up O2
Increased demand of energy causes the Cardiovascular system too ...
Increase heart and force of contraction
Increased demand in energy causes the Respiratory system too...
Increase the rate and depth of breathing
Why is the circulation describes as a steady state?
Net volume of oxygen exchange in the lungs is equal to that of the tissue. Therefore supply =demand
What organs are involve in the Upper Respiratory Tract (URT)?
What organs are involved in the Lower Respiratory Tract (LRT)?
Why does the right bronchus commonly have aspirated foreign bodies lodged in it?
The Right Bronchus is more lateral and wider when compared to the Left Bronchus
How is the trachea and bronchi maintained?
C shaped cartilage rings
How are the bronchioles maintained?
No cartilage but are maintained by physical forces within the thorax
Where are the points of gas exchange within the lungs?
What airways are known as the conducting zone?
Trachea, bronchi and early bronchioles as no gas exchange occurs
What airways are known as the Respiratory zone?
Late bronchioles and alveoli as gas exchange does occur
How is air resistance controlled in airways?
Airway diameter which is controlled by the activity of bronchiole smooth muscle
Contraction decreases diameter which increases resistance
Relaxation increases diameter which decreases resistance
What is the structure of an alveoli?
Type I cells = gas exchange
Type II = Synthesize surfactant
Alveolar macrophages = phagocytose foreign material
Each cluster of alveolis are surrounded by ...
Elastic fibres and a network of capillaries
What is anatomical dead space?
Air that is in conducting airways and therefore can't take place in gas exchange
What is mucous produced by?
Goblet cells and in the subepithelial glands