Physiology: Introduction into Anatomy of Lungs, Blood Supply and Airways Flashcards Preview

System 1: Respiratory AM > Physiology: Introduction into Anatomy of Lungs, Blood Supply and Airways > Flashcards

Flashcards in Physiology: Introduction into Anatomy of Lungs, Blood Supply and Airways Deck (20)
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1

What are the function of the Respiratory System?

1. Gas exchange
2. Acid-base balance
3. Communication via speech
4. Protection from infection

2

Vessels involved in the pulmonary circulation?

Pulmonary artery and pulmonary vein

3

Gas exchange in the pulmonary circulation?

Delivers CO2 to the lungs and picks up O2

4

Increased demand of energy causes the Cardiovascular system too ...

Increase heart and force of contraction

5

Increased demand in energy causes the Respiratory system too...

Increase the rate and depth of breathing

6

Why is the circulation describes as a steady state?

Net volume of oxygen exchange in the lungs is equal to that of the tissue. Therefore supply =demand

7

What organs are involve in the Upper Respiratory Tract (URT)?

Nasal Cavity
Tongue
Pharynx
Larynx

8

What organs are involved in the Lower Respiratory Tract (LRT)?

Trachea
Bronchi
Bronchioles
Diaphragm

9

Why does the right bronchus commonly have aspirated foreign bodies lodged in it?

The Right Bronchus is more lateral and wider when compared to the Left Bronchus

10

How is the trachea and bronchi maintained?

C shaped cartilage rings

11

How are the bronchioles maintained?

No cartilage but are maintained by physical forces within the thorax

12

Where are the points of gas exchange within the lungs?

The alveoli

13

What airways are known as the conducting zone?

Trachea, bronchi and early bronchioles as no gas exchange occurs

14

What airways are known as the Respiratory zone?

Late bronchioles and alveoli as gas exchange does occur

15

How is air resistance controlled in airways?

Airway diameter which is controlled by the activity of bronchiole smooth muscle

Contraction decreases diameter which increases resistance
Relaxation increases diameter which decreases resistance

16

What is the structure of an alveoli?

Type I cells = gas exchange

Type II = Synthesize surfactant

Alveolar macrophages = phagocytose foreign material

17

Each cluster of alveolis are surrounded by ...

Elastic fibres and a network of capillaries

18

What is anatomical dead space?

Air that is in conducting airways and therefore can't take place in gas exchange

19

What is mucous produced by?

Goblet cells and in the subepithelial glands

20

What is the function of mucous

Moistens air
Traps Particles
Provides large surface area for cilia to act on