Physiology: Anatomy of chest wall and mechanics of breathing Flashcards Preview

System 1: Respiratory AM > Physiology: Anatomy of chest wall and mechanics of breathing > Flashcards

Flashcards in Physiology: Anatomy of chest wall and mechanics of breathing Deck (20)
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1

What is Boyle's Law?

Pressure exerted by a gas is inversely proportional to its volume

Increase volume = Decrease pressure
Decrease volume = Increase pressure

2

What are the lungs and the interior of the thorax covered by?

Pleural membrane

3

What pleural membrane covers the outer surface of the lungs?

The visceral pleura

4

What pleural membrane covers the interior surface of the rib cage?

The parietal pleura

5

Whats is inflammation of the pleural membrane called?

Pleurisy

6

What is sticking the lungs and interior of the thorax together?

The pleural fluid

7

What is trying to the lungs away from the inner rib wall?

The elastic fibres within the lungs

8

What muscles are used in inspiration?

External intercostal muscles and the diaphragm

9

What muscles are used in expiration?

Passive at rest

In severe resp load internal intercostal muscles and abdominal muscles

10

When is the diaphragm relaxed?

After rest expiration and before inspiration

11

How do the ribs move during breathing?

"bucket handle"motion and moves in a lateral dimension

12

What is asthma?

Over-reactive constriction of bronchial smooth muscle. Expiration phase is most affected

13

What happens to airways in inspiration?

Airways are pulled open by physical forces and thoracic volume increases

14

What happens to airways in expiration?

Airways are compressed by physical forces and thoracic volume decreases

15

What is intra-thoracic (alveolar) pressure (PA)?

Pressure inside the thoracic cavity

+ve or -ve compared to atmospheric pressure

Inspiration = -ve
Expiration = +ve

16

What is Intra-pleural pressure (Pip)?

Pressure inside the pleural cavity
ALWAYS -ve in healthy lungs

17

What is the Transpulmonary Pressure (PT)?

Difference between alveolar pressure and the intra-pleural pressure
ALWAYS +ve as Pip is ALWAYS -ve

PT= PA-Pip

18

What is the important relationship between the pleural membranes?

Sticks the two membranes together as there is a elastic recoil from the chest wall pulling away from lungs and elastic recoil from lungs pulling away from the chest

19

What happens when closed pleural membrane is opened?

Pneumothorax

20

What is the relationship between the bulk of air flow between atmosphere and alveoli and pressure and resistance

F=(Patm - PA) / R