Flashcards in Physiology: Haemoglobin and Gas Transport Deck (38)
What does blood transport from lungs into tissues?
What does blood transport as a waste product from tissues to the lungs?
How much O2 can be dissolved in a 1L of plasma?
3ml of oxygen
What aids the carrying of oxygen ability in blood?
Haemoglobin in red blood cells
How much O2 can be dissolve in blood with RBC containing Haemoglobin?
Is arterial partial pressure of O2 = to arterial concentration/ content of O2?
Why is arterial partial pressure of O2 not = to arterial concentration/ content of O2?
Partial arterial pressure of O2 only refers to O2 in the plasma solution
Why do gases not travel in gaseous phase through blood?
As an air embolism may occur
How much much of the arterial O2 extracted by peripheral tissues at rest?
What partial pressure of arterial blood equal too?
Oxygen pressure within the plasma solution
How much of the oxygen in blood bound to haemoglobin?
How many oxygen molecules bind to 1 haemoglobin?
What is the most prevalent haemoglobin in RBC?
What are the types of haemoglobin in RBC?
What is the fundamental determinant of how saturated haemoglobin is saturated with oxygen?
Partial Pressure of Oxygen in arterial blood
What allows oxygen to be extracted from alveoli into arterial blood?
Partial Pressure gradient between the alveoli and pulmonary capillaries
What maintains the partial pressure gradient in blood?
Hb taking O2 from the plasma and Hb is saturated
When does the haemoglobin saturation fall below 90%?
When PaO2 is under 60mmHg
What other forms of haemoglobin have a higher affinity of O2?
Foetal Haemoglobin (HbF)
Why do myoglobin and HbF have a higher affinity for O2 than HbA?
As they need to extract O2 from maternal blood or require high amount of O2 due to high activity
Define the condition Anaemia?
Condition where oxygen carrying capacity of blood is compromised
What can cause anaemia?
Vitamin B12 deficiency
What Chemical factors affect Haemoglobin Affinity?
pH - more alkaline higher affinity, more acidic less affinity
PCO2 - less CO2 higher affinity for O2
Temp - lower temp higher affinity
DPG - binding fo 2,3-DPG decreases affinity
What is 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) produced by?
When does 2,3-DPG increase?
When low O2 supply
Why is Carbon Monoxide Toxic?
Haemoglobin has a higher affinity to CO than O2
What are the symptoms to carbon monoxide poisoning? (6)
Hypoxia and Anaemia
Nausea and Headaches
Cherry Red Skin
RR not affected due to normal PCO2
Brain Damage and Death
What is the definition of Hypoxia?
Inadequate supply of O2 to tissues
What are the 5 main Types of Hypoxia?
Hypoxaemic - most common