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Flashcards in Pillar 1 Deck (19):

Describe Pillar 1 in general

1. for Public solvency information in supervisory returns
2. Produced annually
3. Prescriptive rules


What are the 2 types of Pillar 1 firm?

1. Realistic basis life firm (>£500m WP liabs or smaller firm but opted to be realistic)
2. Regulatory basis only life firm


What's the difference between peak 1 and 2?

1 = statutory valuation satisfying minimum EU standards
2 = 'realistic' valuation requiring market consistent assessment of all benefits including G's and O's


what's difference between peak 1 reg and real calcs?

firms have different rules


what are rules on assets in peak 1?

only admissible assets
maximum amts on assets non Govt. or local authority (reduce concentration risk)
Express max amts as % of math res + cap req


How to value these admissible assets under peak 1:
1. quoted investments
(debt securities/bonds/capital market instruments/shares/variable yield assets/units in UCITS or CIS investing only in admissible assets/approved derivatives)
2. loans assuming amount can be recovered
3. land/buildings
4. tangible fixed assets
5. cash and deposits

1. quoted investments = bid price
2. loans assuming amount can be recovered = face value
3. land/buildings = qualified valuer on open market sale basis
4. tangible fixed assets = depreciate on straight line basis
5. cash and deposits = face value


What are not included in admissible assets?

1. Holdings that may give rise to significant liabilities or onerous duties
2. Nature presents unacceptable custody risk
3. Realisability can't be relied upon with confidence
4. Sufficiently objective and verifiable basis of valuation doesn't exist


8 points on peak 1 math res requirements

1. Prospective prudent valuations including MAD's
2. Avoid future valuation strain
3. individual policy res>=Gteed SV (if gtee exists)
4. Sometimes pol res could be <= 97.5% risk adjusted (ie. reduced to allow for defauly possibility) yields on back assets


What additional capital needs to be held above math res for peak 1?

LTICR for both types - multiply measures of capital at risk by fixed percentages
RCR in reg basis - assessment of market risk based on prescribed equity/property/fixed interest shocks


What is the MCR in peak 1 for realistic and reg life firms?
What is BCRR and how much is it?

Realistic firm = max(BCRR, LTICR)
Reg = max(BCRR, LTICR + RCR)
BCRR = base capital resource requirement = 3.7m euro


In peak 2, what are the assets that can be included?

1. Admissible assets backing with-profits business (not the np business)
2. Excess admissible assets - those above exposure limits for peak 1
3. MV inadmissible derivatives in WP fund
4 PVFP non-par business in WP fund
5. Support assets - those helf outside the fund to support with-profits business


Explain how to calculate mathematical reserves in peak 2

1. Market consistent valuation
2. Stochastic techniques
3. Economic assumptions = market consistent
4. Non-economic = best estimate
5. Base reserves = total asset shares
6. Need to add on future policy related liabilities e.g. guarantee costs
7. Management actions can be allowed for as long as consistent with PPFM and realistic amount of time given since 'shock'
8. Policyholder actions may also be allowed for


Give 2 examples of management actions and 1 of policyholder actions that could be allowed for in RBS

Dynamic reversionary bonuses
Equity backing ratios varying with economic conditions
Lapses varying with attractiveness of guarantees under different economic conditions


What are the RCM stresses, what can be allowed for?

Fall/rise in equity/property/lapses/fixed interest yields values
widening of credit spreads
allowance for impact of credit risk on reinsurance exposures
Allow for management actions as long as realistic time after shock event


How is the WPICC calculated?

Peak 1 free assets = Assets - (math res + lticr + rcr)
Peak 2 free assets = Assets - (math res + rcm)
If Peak 1 free assets > Peak 2 free assets then WPICC is used to bring the Peak 1 into line with Peak 2.
ie. WPICC = max(0, Peak 1 free assets - Peak 2 free assets)
So afterwards:
Peak 1 Liabs = Math Res + LTICR + RCR + WPICC
Peak 1 Free Surplus = Assets1 - Peak 1 Liabs = Assets2 - Peak 2 Liabs


What is the ECR (enhanced capital requirement)

lticr + wpicc


What is the CRR (capital resource requirement)

max (MCR, ECR)
Where MCR is:
Realistic firm = max(BCRR, LTICR)
Reg = max(BCRR, LTICR + RCR)

so Real is max(bcrr, lticr + wpicc)
or Reg is max(bcrr, lticr+rcr, lticr+wpicc)


What must a firm demonstrate in terms of capital under Pillar 1?

1. They have sufficient capital resources to meet the CRR
2. Capital is of sufficient quality


What are the different tiers so we can define capital of sufficient quality, in pillar 1? Why hold different tiers?

1. Core tier 1 - Permanent share capital, profit/loss account and other reserves, fund for future appropriations
2. Other tier 1 - perpetual non-cumulative preference shares
3. upper tier 2 - perpetual preference shares, perpetual subordinated debt and securities
4. Lower tier 2 - fixed term preference shares, fixed term subordinate securities

Ensures capital held of sufficient quality, reduces risk of insolvency in adverse scenarios