Plants and the colonization of land Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Plants and the colonization of land Deck (62):
1

almost always used to ward off attack of virus, predators, the plant doesn't need it to survive directly but uses this as protection from the world

secondary compound

2

Why are plants important?

agriculture
food
drugs and medicine
fossil fuels
conversion of the sun's energy
biodiversity

3

what is the basis of agriculture

plants

4

How does a bee help plants reproduce?

it acts as a messanger, carrying the pollen containing sperm from male flowers to female flowers hich receive the sperm

5

where are female and male flowers located on a plant and why?

The female flowers are towards the bottom of the plant as flowers can turn male after growing for a while so the younger flowers at the base of the plant are female

6

What is the study of plants called?

botany

7

What is our definition of a plant?

charophytes (green algae)
chlorophytes (green algae)
embryophytes (land plants)

8

What is it called when a non-photosynthetic eukaryote engulfs a photosynthetic cyanobacterium (a prokaryote, now called a plasmid)?

primary endosymbiosis

9

What is it called when a non-photosynthetic eukaryote engulfs a photosynthetic eukaryote?

secondary endosymbiosis

10

what are the types of photosynthetic eukaryotes?

red and green algae

11

Explain the oxygen revolution

no oxygen in atmoshphere
- organisms (cyanobacteria) took in CO2 which was plentiful
-produced oxygen
-air became so oxygen dense it became toxic for some
- oxygen helped create ozone layer, life slowly moved to land
- natural give and take of CO2 and oxygen we have today

12

What happened 4550 million years ago

the earth formed

13

what appeared 3500 million years ago

photosynthesis (cyanobacteria)

14

What are the two things that happened 1500 million years ago?

First plasmid was engulfed by eukaryote
red and green algae diverge

15

When did the colonization of land begin

500 million year ago

16

What are the shared features of all plants in this course ?
- chlorophytes
-charophytes
-embryophytes

1) they use starch as energy
2) they all contain chlorophyll b
3) cellulose is a major component of the cell wall
4) thylakoids are in stacks called grana

17

What are the shared features of land plants and charophytes/ what are the features of land plants ancestors?

1) cells begin dividing from inside, not outside
2) plasmodesmat, the connection between cells
3) sperm structure
4) rose-shaped cellulose synthesizing complexes
5) sporopolleinin
6) peroxisome enzymes

18

What are features of land plants/ embryophytes that seperate them from other plants in this course?

1) the cuticle
2) jacketed sex organs called gametangia
3) embryophyte condition
4) alternation of generations

19

Why do plants use starch as energy and not sugar?

Sugar is a good storage molecule because it is easily metabolised and not very reactive, however they absorb and retain water. Starch are chains of glucose so starch can be easily be broken into sugar and starch is insoluble so no water problem

20

what is chlorophyll b

chlorophyll b is an accesory pigment that passes enrgy to chlorophyll a which all photosynthetic eukaryotes have

21

what is unbranched rediues of glucose?

cellulose

22

what is amylose?

straight chain residues of glucose, 20% of starch in plants

23

what is amylopectin?

branched linked residues of glucose, 80% of starch in plants

24

what is the most common organic polymer on earth?

cellulose

25

What makes grana green?

chlorophyll which is contain in thylakoids

26

what ar stacked to make grana?

thylakoids

27

what are thylakoids?

membranes inside chloroplast

28

How do we know that charophytes are the closest relative to embryophytes?

structure
nuclear and chloroplast genes

29

what starts the dividing process in charophytes and embryophytes?

First the formation of the cell plate

30

What is the cell plate associated with?

short microtubules

31

what is a phragmoplast? what is it made of?

the thing that pulls the cell apart, made of microtubules associated with the cell plate

32

What are the connections between cells of embryophtes and charophytes called?

plasmodesmata

33

what are plasmodesmata?

cell membrane extentions through pores in cell wall

34

What does the plasmodesmata allow to pass from cell to cell?

material

35

what is a peroxisome and its purpose?

an organelle involved with detoxifying

36

What is referred to as " the most durable organic product on earth"?

sporopollenin; an organic polymer

37

What does sporopollenin do in nature?

prevents drying out of plants by covering spores and protects embryophytes and charophytes from attacks from viruses and bacteria

38

What is the waxy covering that prevents the drying out of land plants called?

the cuticle

39

what are land plant sex organs called?

gametangia

40

what are male land plants sex organs called and what do they produce?

antheridium ; produces sperm

41

what are land plants female sex organs called and what do they produce?

archegodium; eggs

42

gametangia produce through what process and why?

mitosis as they are already haploid (n)

43

Why are embryophytes named embryophytes?

the embryophyte condition

44

What is the embryophyte condition?

egg/gamete stays on maternal tissue, is fertilized there by males gamete/ sperm , and then the zygote grows on mom and is eventually released

45

What odd phenomenom only occurs in sexual organisms?

alternation of generations

46

what process makes diploid haploid

meiosis

47

What process makes haploid diploid?

fertilization

48

What is special about land plants/ embryophtes sexual reproduction?

both phases of life are multicellular

49

what or which share the feature that they use starch as energy?

all of plants in this course

50

which or what have a cuticle?

just land plants/ embyrophytes

51

what or which divde from the inside of the cell starting at the cell plate and using phragmoplast?

both the charophytes and the embryophytes

52

which or what contains chlorophyll b ?

all plants in this course

53

what or which have jacketed sex organs (gametangia )?

only land plants

54

what or which has cellulose as a major component of the cell wall?

all plants in this course
charophytes
chlorophytes
embryophytes

55

which share the same sperm structure?

embryophytes and the charophytes

56

what or which has rose-shapes cellule synthesizing complexes?

charophytes
embryophytes
`

57

what or which has the embryophte condition?

the embryophytes!

58

what or which has sporopollenin, the most durable organic product in the world?

charophytes
embryophytes

59

what or which has alternatino of generations?

embryophytes

60

what or which have thylakoids in stacks called grana?

chlorophytes
charophytes
embryophytes

61

what or which have peroxisome enzymes?

charophytes
embryophytes`

62

what or which have plasmodesmata? the connection betwen cells

charophytes
embryophytes