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Flashcards in Lecture 4 Deck (66):
1

something that should, or does contain one seed

fruit

2

reproductive structure of conifers?

cones

3

reproductive structure of flowering plants?

flowers

4

microgametophyte in conifers?

pollen

5

nourishing embryo in conifers?

megagametophyte

6

microgametophyte in flowering plants?

pollen

7

nourishing embryo in flowering plants?

endosperm

8

how many cells are the conifers megagametophyte?

many cells

9

how many cells are flowering plants megagametophyte?

8 nuclei, 7 cells

10

what is special about conifers seeds?

they are naked

11

Parts of the shoot system?

nodes, branch, auxiliary bud, leaf, internode region

12

Place on shoot where leaves emerge, sometimes branches

node

13

originally bud, that can remain dormant until it wants to grow

branch

14

small bud

auxiliary bud

15

contains blade and petiole

leaf

16

space on shoot between nodes

internode region

17

what does the root system consist of?

taproot
lateral roots

18

glucose chain

cellulose

19

adjacent, parallel cellulose molecules (polysaccharide), rope-like

cellulose microfibers

20

thin, in all cells; all plants have (except sperm and sea plants)

primary plant cell wall

21

thicker, only in some cells; some plants (helps with strength)

secondary plant cell wall

22

what are plant cell walls mostly composed of?

cellulose

23

some functions of plant cell walls?

Determines and maintains cell shape as plant cell (and membrane with it) within cell wall can expand and contract
Provides support, mechanical strength: allowing plants to get tall, compete for light, hold out thin leaves
Prevent membrane from bursting, because cells will continue swelling w/o cell wall
Control rate and direction of cell grow
Form shape of plant, determines how plant can grow
Physical barrier to threats like:
pathogens
water in suberized (waxy) cells, some cell walls aren't waxy
**Remember wall is porous and allows passage of small molecules***
Carb storage, which the cell can take back and use

24

What are the three types of polyssacharide in cell walls?

cellulose
cross-linking glycans (hemicellulose)
pectin

25

What does hemicellulose/ cross linking glycans do?

bond with cellulose

26

what is the function of pectin in the cell wall?

holding everything together like glue

27

: material of pectic substances which holds adjacent cells together by acting like a glue

middle lamella

28

Was the secondary or primary cell wall made second?

the secondary cell wall was made second

29

How was the secondary cell wall made?

the membrane inside the cell makes the cell walls
makes primary
primary pushed outwards
secondary made

30

why are there two cell walls

support, protection

31

the connections between the cells. Extensions between cells where membrane is continuous

plasmodesmata

32

(cell)
Outermost coating of all land plants (single sheet/layer)

epidermal cells

33

function of epidermal cells

waterproofing
protection from bacteria

34

wax and epidermal cells make the ____

cuticle

35

function of the cuticle

protects against:
water loss
UV radiation
pathogens

36

cell type: Functions, usually performed as a unit of these cells (accomplish things in groups), general cell

parenchymal cells

37

function of parenchymal cells

photosynthesis
storage
secretion

38

do parenchymal cells have a secondary cell wall?

not usually

39

When do parenchymal cells divide?

at maturity

40

cell type:
Support, especially of young and growing organs
- uneven primary cell wall

collenchymal cells

41

do collenchymal cells have a secondary cell wall?

no

42

are collenchymal cells alive at maturity? what do they do at maturity?

yes; they elongate at maturity

43

cell type:
Support, protection of tissues no longer elongating/ getting longer because they are hard cells with thick secondary wall that has polymer lignin in it.
- has 2 forms

sclerenchyma cells

44

are sclerechyma cells alive at maturity? can they elongate at maturity?

probably dead at maturity; cannot elongate at maturity

45

do sclerenchyma cells have a secondary wall?

yes, a thick secondary wall

46

what are the two types of sclerenchyma cells?

fibers
sclereids

47

water conducting cells of xylem?

tracheids and vessel elements

48

_____ have tracheids?

all vascular plants

49

____ have vessel elements

flowering plants

50

are xylem cells alive at maturity?

no

51

What is special about xylem cells second wall?

it is lignified; woody

52

how does water flow through xylem cells

tracheids: through the pits
vessel elements: through tops and bottoms

53

openings in cell walls between cells

pits

54

order of programmed cell death/apotosis

1) Cytoplasmic streaming
2) Secondary cell wall formed
3) Vacuole implodes

55

sugar conducting cells of the phloem?

sieve elements

56

are sieve elements alive at maturity?

yes

57

what are special about sieve elements?

they have companion cells

58

Ultimate source of all parts of mature sporophyte (organs, ect)
Undifferentiated
Retain "forever" the ability to divide (similar to stem cells)

meristems

59

Roots AM and shoot AM
Primary growth of plant tissue systems

apical meristems

60

Vascular cambium and cork cambium
Secondary growth

lateral meristems

61

what do lateral meristems enable the plant to become?

woody

62

What are the three intermediate meristems?

procambium
protoderm
ground meristem

63

what does the procambium make?

vascular tissue

64

what does the protoderm make?

dermal tissue

65

what does the ground meristem make?

ground tissue

66

what is the epidermis?

single layer of epidermal cells; covered by cuticle