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Flashcards in lecture 5 Deck (72):
1

the meristem that is the youngest and most external part of the root

protoderm

2

: Cells produced by the protoderm that die and form a protective barrier on the tip of the root, so the delicate root tissue inside is not damaged when the root pushes deeper into the ground

the root cap

3

An intermediate meristem produced by the root apical meristem; located right behind the root apical meristem.

the procambium`

4

he tissue in the center of a young root

the steele

5

the tissue in between the procambium, protoderm, and root apical meristem

the ground meristem

6

The 3 Root growth zones

Zone of cell division
Zone of elongation
Zone of maturation

7

Where some of the root growth happens
Cell division only happens to the youngest cells
Closest to tip, closest to root apical meristem

cell division growth xone

8

Older cells that have stopped dividing
Where the majority of root growth happens

elongation growth zone

9

The oldest root cells
Have stopped dividing and elongating
Epidermal cells that make root hairs
Uses root hairs to absorb water

maturation growth zone

10

: a single epidermal cell that sticks out into the soil; Function to absorb water; increase surface area

root hairs

11

Series of events when roots make branched roots

- Needs to send out a side shoot from just inside the vascular cylinder because that's how the stream of vascular tissue remains continuous
- The root branch has all the parts the original or main root has, apical meristem, all the intermediate meristems and all the parts of root growth

12

single layer of cells that contains the steele (vascular tissue); occurs in both eudicots and monocots

endodermis

13

center of eudicot root; surrounded by endodermis

vascular cylinder

14

the center ground tissue in monocots

pith

15

is the set of cells where a lateral root can begin; located inside steele and endodermis

paracycle

16

The two new meristems of secondary growth (lateral meristems/ secondary meristems)

vascular cambium
cork cambium

17

One of the two meristems that make bark and wood. The meristem that is made first

vascular cambium

18

meristem that is formed in the middle of the vascular bundles

vascular cambium

19

What side is the primary phloem and primary xylem of the vascular cambium?

primary phloem on outside of vascular cambium
primary xylem on inside of vascular cambium

20

What is the secondary xylem?

wood

21

what is outside the secondary phloem?

bark

22

What is the function of the vascular cambium?

to make secondary xylem and secondary phloem

23

Is wood on the outside or inside of vascular cambium?

inside because its the secondary xylem

24

The two cells of the vascular cambium?

ray initials
fusiform initials

25

What direction do the rays, the ray initials make, run in?

laterally in the stem

26

Why do the rays run laterally?

allows the plant to move things laterally; get stuff out

27

What do fusiform initials make?

xylem and phloem tissue

28

what shape are fusiform initials?

tapered

29

What elements are inside the vascular cambium?

secondary xylem: wood
growth rings
rays

30

polymer that makes wood "woody"; inside the secondary walls of tracheids and vessel elements; second most abundant polymer in the world; only natural polymer in plants not made of sugars

lignin

31

The dark middle of wood.

heartwood

32

why is heartwood dark

.The oldest parts get toxic, wasted materials that turns the wood dark. These toxic materials are thought to help prevent rotting of the center

33

The light part of wood?

sapwood

34

where does the most fluid flow in wood occur? sapwood or hardwood?

Most active spot for fluid flow occurs in sapwood; most water flowing up trunk occurs in sapwood, not hardwood

35

When are the biggest secondary xylem cells made?

spring

36

when are the smallest secondary xylem cells made?

winter

37

Why do secondary xylem cells vary in size?

their rate of production varies

38

what happens to the primary parts of the plant?

they disappear after a period of time, because there is nothing there to make them anymore

39

what happens to the epidermal cells after the plant becomes woody?

they aren't there, nothing to protect the plant... cork cambium steps in

40

Made by cylinder of cortex cells outside the vascular cambium

cork cambium

41

what is the cork cambium's job?

to produce periderm

42

What is periderm?

phelloderm and cork

43

thin layer of living parenchymal cells
to the inside (some woody species)

phelloderm

44

suberized (wax in the cell walls), dead cells
To the outside
Protects woody plants since there is no more epidermis

cork

45

cork is impervious to ____

liquid

46

xylem flow goes in what direction?

upwards only

47

phloem flow goes in what direction

multiple directios

48

liberation of O2 and intake of CO2

photosynthesis

49

liberation of CO2 and intake of O2 in roots; why does this happen?

root respiration; roots are not photosynthetic

50

The three cell components discussed

3 cell components:
1) Cytosol: everything inside cell membrane that is not an organelle
2) Vacuole: organelle for storage
3) Cell wall

51

transport route inside cell body itself.

symplastic; plastic means plasma membrane

52

route of transport outside cell membrane, in the cell wall,

apoplastic; "apo" means away from

53

route of transport; combo of symplastic and apoplastic; water is inside and outside cell at various times

transmembrane

54

fluid flows spontaneously from higher to lower energy

2nd law of thermodynamics

55

energy difference in water, energy that drives spontaneous movement of water

water potential

56

filling a balloon is an example of ___ pressure

positive

57

drawing fluid from a water balloon is an example of ____ pressure

negative

58

Psi (Ψ): symbol for what

water potential

59

loss of water due to osmosis

plasmolysis

60

plump cell with water

turgid

61

water and minerals; materials inside xylem

sap

62

non-woody mature eudicot root

herbaceous

63

path of xylem

soil→ root→ shoot→ leaf→ atmosphere

64

single ring of cells that functions as a checkpoint for the plant to say who it allows in. Has in its walls a waxy material called casparian strip

endodermis

65

- waxy material inside the cell walls of the endodermis
- where primary wall and middle lamella used to be
- Waterproof and impermeable to ions: suberin


casparian strip

66

function of endodermis (and casparian strip)?

Does not permit fluid to pass through it unless that fluid goes into the cell membrane.

--> The symplastic route continues going through the cells
But the Apoplastic route going outside the cell membranes hits the waxy part of the endodermis (the casparian strip) and is now forced to change and go through the cell membrane otherwise the fluid won't be allowed to continue into the plant

67

What is the point of an endodermis?

The cells force the fluid to go through cell membrane because it can then sort what the plant actually needs to allow to go through and what the plant doesn't want allowed in

68

contents within endodermis

Cylinder : one cell thick
Steele: everything inside the endodermis
Xylem and phloem
Pith
Pericycle (origin of lateral roots)

69

waterproof cells that fill the periderm; cells that have wax filled in their cell walls

cork

70

everything outside secondary phloem

bark

71

wood

second xylem

72

made by cork cambium; filled with waterproof cells called cork

periderm