Plate Tectonics 4.4 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Plate Tectonics 4.4 Deck (19)
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Deformation

The process by which the shape of a rock changes because of stress

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Compression

Stress that occurs when forces act to squeeze an object

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Tension

Stress that occurs when forces act to stretch an object

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Folding

The bending of rock layers due to stress

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Three kinds of folds

Anticlines, synclines, monoclines

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Anticline

Up arching fold

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Syncline

Downward fold

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Monocline

Rock layers folded so that both ends of the fold are horizontal.

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Fault

A break in a body of rock along which one slides relative to another

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Two sides of a fault

Hanging wall and footwall
\ \
^f ^h

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Normal fault

Causes hanging wall to move down relative to the footwall. Normally occur when tectonic forces cause tension that pulls the rocks apart.

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Reverse fault

Causes the hanging wall to move up relative to the footwall. Usually happen when tectonic forces cause compression that pushes rocks together.

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Strike-slip faults

Form when opposing forces cause rock to break and move horizontally.

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Folded mountains

Form when rock layers are squeezed together and pushed upwards. (Compression)

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Fault block mountains

Form when tension causes large blocks of earths crust to drop down relative to the other blocks

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Volcanic mountains

Forms when oceanic crust sinks in to the asthenosphere at subduction zones and is formed from magma that rose through the surface.

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Uplift

The rising of regions of earths crust

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Subsidence

The sinking of regions of earths crust to lower elevations

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Rift zone

A set of deep cracks that forms between two tectonic plates that are pulling away from each other.