Flashcards in PM Technique Deck (19):
What are the five things required for a post mortem examination?
5) Equipment- don't double up on surgical equipment.
Knives, forceps, scissors, rib cutters, saws, microbiological sampling,Tissue/cytology sampling.
What is the aim of the PM procedure?
A standard thorough examination of organs and tissues of the body systems. A careful and complete examination following a standard protocol frequently reveals unexpected but significant information even when the clinical history does not indicate diseased states.
What are the five steps for a general approach?
1) Check if it is the correct animal
2) Dorso-ventral recumbancy
3) Assessment of organ systems
4) Sample selection as appropriate
5) Interpretation and report
What is the first thing that is done in the prosection?
A clinical exam e.g. external features, bodyweight and condition.
How is the initial dissection performed?
Incise the axillary and inguinal regions then join these up on both sides, reflect the skin cranially to the mandibular symphysis and caudally to the pubis. In males reflect the penis and remove the testes.
How is the neck region examined?
Incise inter-mandibular mm and reflect the tongue ventrally.
Incise the soft palate and the hyoid apparatus, examine tonsils, R/P LNs and thyroids.
Dissect the oesophagus and trachea together to the thoracic inlet.
How is the abdomen and thorax opened?
1) incise the linea alba near the xiphisternum and caudally to the pubis.
2)incise the abdominal wall around the costal arch to display the organs in situ.
3) Remove the ventral sternum by cutting the ribs from the costal arch to the thoracic inlet bilaterally and around the diaphragm.
4) Dissect mediastinal and pericardial sac attachments from the sternum to display the thoracic organs in situ.
How are the thoracic viscera removed?
1) sever the CT attachments at the thoracic inlet
2) separate the oesophagus and the trachea, transect the aorta and common vena cava at the diaphragm
3)remove the heart and lungs leaving the oesophagus connected to the stomach.
How are the abdominal viscera removed?
1) locate descending colon, ligate and transect near the pelvic inlet.
2) species specific...
3) Remove the liver and adrenals
4) Remove ventral pelvic bones to expose the pelvic canal
5) Free the kidneys and ureteurs and bladder and remove with the genitalia and terminal rectum.
6) make an encircling incision around the anus and vulva to release the urinary and genital tracts intact. (remove separately in large)
How is the GIT removed in a small animal?
Cut the root of the mesentery to SI and remove the intestines, stomach, liver and spleen as a unit.
How is the GIT removed in a large animal?
Remove spleen and stomach with intestines separately and leave the liver temporarily in situ.
How are the musculoskeletal systems examined?
Open the shoulder, elbow, hip and stifle joint. Compare muscle masses and examine bones (femoral bone marrow)
How is the nervous system examined?
Remove the head at the atlanto-occipital joint unless the lesion is at that site.
Access the brain via removal of calvarium and meninges. Leave pituitary gland in situ.
Access spinal chord by removing dorsal vertebral arches.
What special senses are examined?
Eyes, ears, nasal passages and sinuses
How is the heart, lungs and GI tract examined?
1) note the cardiac silhouette and weight
2) open airways and gross section of the parenchyma
3) take microbiology/toxicology samples before dissection, unravel prior to opening.
How are the urinary and genitalia systems examined?
1) open bladder and collect contents for analysis. Assess kidneys and gross section (longitudinal incision)
2)open uterine horns and vulva, gross section of the prostate, testes/ovaries
How should toxicology and microbiology samples be stored?
Freeze in -20 degrees in plastic leak-proof containers.
Double bagged and labelled if zoonotic, for virology contact the lab.
How are parasitology and cytological samples stored?
via faecal sample.
Prefer fluid samples that are as fresh as possible, rather than smears.