Flashcards in PMBOK Chapter 2 - Organizational Influence and Project Life Cycle Deck (22):
What are organizations?
systematic arrangements of entities (persons and/or departments) aimed at accomplishing a purpose, which may involve undertaking projects
What is the organization's culture an example of?
an enterprise environmental factor
What is organizational structure?
an enterprise environmental factor, which can affect the availability of resources and influence how projects are conducted
What is the classic functional organization?
a hierarchy where each employee has one clear superior
What are matrix organizations?
reflect a blend of functional and projectized characteristics. can be classified as weak, balanced or strong depending on the relative level of power and influence between functional and project managers
What are weak organizations?
maintain many of the characteristics of a functional organization, and the role of the project manager is more of a coordinator or expediter
What are strong organizations?
have many of the characteristics of the projectized organization, and have full-time project managers with considerable authority and full-time project administrative staff
What are balanced matrix organizations?
recognize the need for a project manager, they do not provide the project manager with the full authority over the project and project funding
What is a projectized organization?
team members are often collocated; most of the organization's resources are involved in project work and project managers have a great deal of independence and authority
What are organizational process assets?
the plans, processes, policies, procedures and knowledge bases specific to and used by the performing organization.
What are the five process groups?
Initiating, Planning, Executing, Monitoring and Controlling, Closing
What are enterprise environmental factors?
refer to conditions, not under the control of the project team, that influence, constrain or direct the project
What is a stakeholder?
an individual, group or organization who may affect, by affected by or perceive itself to be affected by a decision, activity or outcome of a project
What is project governance?
the alignment of the project with stakeholders' needs or objectives - is critical to the successful management of stakeholder engagement and the achievement of organizational objectives
Examples of project stakeholders:
Sponsors / Customers and users / Sellers / Business partners / Organizational groups / Functional managers
What are the two basic project team compositions:
1) Dedicated -- all or a majority of the project team members are assigned to work full-time on the project
2) Part-time -- the project managers and team members work on the project while remaining in their existing organizations and continuing to carry out their normal functions
What is a project life cycle?
the series of phases that a project passes through from its initiation to its closure
What is a predictive life cycle?
the product and deliverables are defined at the beginning of the project and any changes to scope are carefully managed
What is an adaptive life cycle?
the product is developed over multiple iterations and detailed scope is defined for each iteration only as the iteration begins
What is a project phase?
a collection of logically related project activities that culminates in the completion of one or more deliverables
Two basic types of phase-to-phase relationships:
1) Sequential relationship -- a phase starts only when the previous phase is complete
2) Overlapping relationship -- a phase starts prior to completion of the previous one