Flashcards in PMBOK Chapter 6 - Project Time Management Deck (46):
What is Project Time Management? (knowledge area)
includes the processes required to manage the timely completion of the project
Plan Schedule Management (process)
the process of establishing the policies, procedures, and documentation for planning, developing, managing, executing and controlling the project schedule
Define Activities (process)
the process of identifying and documenting the specific actions to be performed to produce the project deliverables
Sequence Activities (process)
the process of identifying and documenting relationships among the project activities
Estimate Activity Resources (process)
the process of estimating the type and quantities of material, human resources, equipment, or supplies required to perform each activity
Estimate Activity Durations (process)
the process of estimating the number of work periods needed to complete individual activities with estimated resources
Develop Schedule (process)
the process of analyzing activity sequences, durations, resource requirements, and schedule constraints to create the project schedule model
Control Schedule (process)
the process of monitoring the status of project activities to update project progress and manage changes to the schedule baseline to achieve the plan
What is a schedule model?
a representation of the plan for executing the project's activities including durations, dependencies, and other planning information
What is the schedule management plan?
a component of the project management plan that establishes the criteria and the activities for developing, monitoring, and controlling the schedule.
What are work packages decomposed to?
activities that represent the work effort required to complete the work package
What is rolling wave planning?
an iterative planning technique in which the work to be accomplished in the near term is planned in detail, while the work in the future is planned at a higher level
What is an activity list?
a comprehensive list that includes all schedule activities required on the project, also includes the activity identifier and a scope of work description for each activity
What are activity attributes?
they extend the description of the activity by identifying the multiple components associated with each activity
What is a milestone list?
a list identifying all project milestones and indicates whether the milestone is mandatory
What is the precedence diagramming method?
a technique used for constructing a schedule model in which activities are represented by nodes and are graphically linked by one or more logical relationships to show the sequence in which the activities are to be performed
What is a predecessor activity?
an activity that logically comes before a dependent activity in a schedule
What is a successor activity?
a dependent activity that logically comes after another activity in a schedule
Four types of logical relationships:
1) Finish-to-start (FS) - a successor activity cannot start until a predecessor activity has finished
2) Finish-to-finish (FF) - a successor activity cannot finish until a predecessor activity has finished
3) Start-to-start (SS) - a successor activity cannot start until a predecessor activity has started
4) Start-to-finish (SF) - a successor activity cannot finish until a predecessor activity has started
Four types of dependencies:
1) Mandatory dependencies - those that are legally or contractually required or inherent in the nature of the work
2) Discretionary dependencies - sometimes referred to as preferred logic or soft logic
3) External dependencies - involve a relationship between project activities and non-project activities
4) Internal dependencies - involve a precedence relationship between project activities and are generally inside the project team's control
What are leads and lags?
lead is the amount of time whereby a successor activity can be advanced with respect to a predecessor activity
lag is the amount of time whereby a successor activity will be delayed with respect to a predecessor activity
What are project schedule network diagrams?
a graphical representation of the logical relationships among the project activities
What are resource calendars?
a calendar that identifies the working days and shifts on which each specific resource is available
What is Published estimating data?
several organizations routinely publish updated production rates and unit costs of resources for an extensive array of labor trades, material, equipment for different countries
What is bottom-up estimating?
a method of estimating project duration or costs by aggregating the estimates of the lower-level components of the WBS
What are activity resource requirements?
identify the types and quantities of resources required for each activity in a work package
What is a resource breakdown structure?
a hierarchical representation of resources by category and type
What is analogous estimating?
technique for estimating the duration or cost of an activity or a project using historical data from a similar activity or project. generally less costly and less time consuming that other techniques, but it is also less accurate
What is parametric estimating?
estimating technique in which an algorithm is used to calculate cost or duration based on historical data and project parameters
What is three-point estimating?
PERT (program evaluation and review technique) uses three estimates to define an approximate range for an activity's duration:
1) Most-likely - (tM) this estimate is based on the duration of the activity, the most realistic scenario
2) Optimistic - (tO) the activity duration based on analysis of the best-case scenario for the activity
3) Pessimistic - (tP) the activity duration based on analysis of the worst-cast scenario for the activity
Expected duration, tE, can be calculated using one of two formulas:
Triangular distribution - tE = (tO + tM + tP) / 3
Beta distribution (from the traditional PERT technique - tE = (tO + 4tM + tP ) /6
What is reserve analysis?
contingency reserves are the estimated duration within the schedule baseline, which is allocated for identified risks that are accepted and for which contingent or mitigation responses are developed
What are activity duration estimates?
quantitative assessments of the likely number of time periods that are required to complete an activity
What is schedule network analysis?
technique that generates the project schedule model. it employs various techniques to calculate the early and late start and finish dates for the uncompleted portions of project activities
What is the critical path method?
used to estimate minimum project duration and determine the amount of scheduling flexibility on the logical network paths within the schedule model
What is the critical path?
the sequence of activities that represents the longest path through a project, with determines the shortest possible project duration
What is the critical chain method?
schedule method that allows the project team to place buffers on any project schedule path to account for limited resources and project uncertainties
What is resource leveling?
technique in which start and finish dates are adjusted based on resource constraints with the goal of balancing demand for resources with the available supply
What is resource smoothing?
technique that adjusts the activities of a schedule model such that the requirements for resources on the project do not exceed certain predefined resource limits
What is crashing?
technique used to shorten the schedule duration for the least incremental cost by adding resources
What is fast-tracking?
technique in which activities or phases normally done in sequence are performed in parallel for at least a portion of the duration
What is a schedule baseline?
the approved version of a schedule model that can be changed only through a formal change control procedure and is used as a basis for comparison to actual results
What is a project schedule?
an output of a schedule model that presents linked activities with planned dates, duration, milestones and resources
What is schedule data?
the collection of information for describing and controlling the schedule
What is a project calendar?
identifies working days and shifts that are available for scheduled activities
What are performance reviews?
measure, compare and analyze schedule performance such as actual start and finish dates, percent complete, and remaining duration