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The tripartite system 1944

Three types of schools
1. Grammar- this who could pass the 11+ exams, had an academic curriculum, increase chance of higher education.
2. Secondary modern- non- academic curriculum more practical, more likely to find manual work. Mainly W/C
3. Technical- rarely existed.


Comprehensive schooling 1965

End of grammar and now just comprehensive schools. But counties decided some grammar schools existed. Ford- even with mixing streaming still separated w/c and m/c.


David- marketisation and therefore parentocracy

marketisation. means power shifts from the school and to the parents, this is because marketisation has meant publishing of results and ousted reports.


Barlett- league tables and now cream skimming

Cream skimming- good schools can be more selective, choose the higher achievers mainly m/c .
Silt shifting- good schools can avoid taking less able pupils who may fail and damage the schools league table position.


The funding issue

More pupils means more money, they can then buy better teachers and facilities, this means the good schools continue to be the best and can chose the best pupils while the worse schools are left to fail.


Gewirtz- parental choice

Class and background still affects were pupils go as parents education effects how they chose.
1. Privileged skilled choosers- m/c parents, use their economic and cultural capital to find the best schools, can move children out to catchment areas etc.
2.Disconnected local choosers- w/c, struggled to understand administration process, distance and costs were restrictions.
3.Semi skilled choosers- w/c but were ambitious for their children, still struggled to understand schools and were annoyed they couldn't help their children into the best schools.


New labour and their policies

1. Create aim higher programmes.
2. Education action zones, poor areas got extra funding.
3. Education maintenance allowance- payments to kids from low income families to stay on after year 11.
4. increase state education funding.


2010- academies

secondary schools encouraged to become academies, get their funding directly from gov instead odd local gov and given control of their curriculum.


Free schools -

Schools set up and run by parents, teachers, faith organisations or businesses.


coalition - reducing inequality

Free school meals to those in year one and two.
Pupil premium, money that schools receive for each pupil from a disadvantaged background
Ofsted 2012 showed this money was not being spent to help these pupils though.


Ball- where exams are marked

Parsons GCSE's are marked in Sydney and Iowa, while Edexcel is owned by US businessmen.


cola-isation of schools

The private sector is penetrating the schools, eg school vouchers. But Beder- families had to spend £110,000 in Tesco's just for one computer.


Ethnicty and policy

Assimilation- 70's pu[pils needed to assist dilate into mainstream British culture, to help raise achievement.
Multicultural education- 80's, Curriculum now values all cultures.
Social inclusion- 90's, trying to help ethnicities, monitored results by ethnicity, made law so schools had to promote all races and equality.