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Flashcards in Politics And The Media Deck (13):

What is the queer theory?

Judith Butler.
Nothing in our identity is fixed.
The divide between masculinity and femininity is a social construct which is based on the divide between men and women.


Gender representation from a constructionist view would argue...

The media represent stereotypical ideas and characteristics of an ideal man and woman. Portray how a man and woman should act. Stereotypes. Social norms.


What is feminism?

A political project which seeks to challenge the roles and perceptions of women.
About power struggle and understanding about power.


Femininity -v- masculinity

From birth we learn how to think and behave like a girl according to the expectations of our culture.
Sex and gender distinctions.
The mass media play a crucial role in our socialisation.
Reinforcement of a patriarchal ideology.


What problems and issues arise from your gender assumptions in relation to media studies?

Creates stereotypes.
Biased ideologies.
Institutions can mediate a product.


Feminist viewpoint: what did Naomi Wolf (1991) say in her book The Beauty Myth?

Beauty is a currency like the gold standard. Like any economy it is determined by politics and in the modern age in the west, it is the last, best belief system that keeps male domination intact.


What is the reflective view of representation?

Understands media representations as a reflection of a lived reality.


Constructionist view of representation?

An understanding that our knowledge of the media world is constructed by media representations.


What are the views of Laura Mulvey’s work ‘visual pleasure and narrative cinema’ (1975)?

Main stream Hollywood films are the product of a male dominated industry. Men control the narrative in films, women are represented as passive objects used for male attention and pleasure in viewing comes from voyeurism, narcissism and scoriphilia.


What are the views of Lorraine Gammon and Margaret Marshment?

In recent years, many media texts have started to represent men as objects for female gaze.


What is post feminism?

Occurring in the period after the feminist movement of the 1970s.
Argued that women no longer need feminism, as women now have more opportunities, options and choices such as an introduction to equal pay, equal work and more women in higher education and work.


What is hegemony by Antonio Gramsci?

Ultimate hegemony could never be achieved. There are constant struggles in opinion, values and ideas between other groups and the ruling classes, thus rendering the ruling classes as not invincibly dominant. Ultimately the ruling groups in society are still the most powerful force in this ongoing power struggle.
Powerful ruling groups concede the occasional defeat and form short term alliances with other groups.


What is Marxism by Karl Marx?

Capitalist society.
Bourgeoisie and proletariats.
Bourgeoisie dominate and exploit the proletariats in pursuits of profit.