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Flashcards in Portugal - Madeira Deck (38):
1

DOP of

Madeira

Madeira DOP

Madeirenses DOP

Also has 1 IGP:
Terras Madeirensas IGP

2

IGP of

Madeira

Terras Madeirenses IGP

* Includes wines from Madeira, Porto Santo

3

What is the regulating body of Madeira?

IVBAM

Wine, Embroidery and Handicraft Institute of Madeira

Instituto do Vinho, do Bordado e do Artesanato da Madeira

4

Principal Madeira Soils?

Pedra Molle
- a sandy (arenaceous) soil, of decomposed yellow tufa

Saibro
- decomposed red tufa

Massapes
- clay resulting from the decomposition of dark tufa

Cascalho
- stony soil

Porto Santo
(this is the other island in the Madeira archipeligo that Madeira can be produced on)
- volcanic and limestone soils

==========

The soil in Madeira is of volcanic origin, consisting mainly of basalt, trachytes and trachydolerites, tufa, scoria (clinker) and conglomerates.

Over time, the volcanic rock disintegrates under the erosion of sun and rain and produces a variety of soils. In general terms, these soils are clayey, acid, rich in organic material, magnesium and iron, poor in potassium and adequate in phosphorus.

Basalt predominates at lower altitudes, and is the origin of more or less clayey dark or reddish-brown soils.

Trachytes are grey or dark-grey rocks found above 300 metres. Trachydolerites are lighter coloured and are found at very high altitudes.

Tufa is solidified volcanic mud and occurs in two forms: pedra mole, which is yellow, and cantaria de forno, which is red. They have a variable composition.

Scoria is solidified cellular lava, dark (sometimes purple) in colour, and porous in texture.

Conglomerates are formed from basalt and tufa detritus.

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5

Allowed & Recommended Branco Madeira Grapes

Recommended Branco Casta:

Terrantez
- once thought to be identical to Folgasão, but now known as a distinct grape. This highly regarded grape no longer has any significant plantings.

Malvasia Fina
- 85% min of this grape must be used in Boal**

Malvasia Cândida
(aka: Malvasia di Lipari)
- was the main grape for Malmsey production; only 4 ha still remain planted (Malvasia Branca de São Jorge is the main grape used now)**

Sercial
(aka Esgana Cao - the "dog strangler")

Verdelho

===============

Recommended Tinto Casta:

Bastardo
- only a miniscule amount of this is planted here anymore.

Malvasia Cândida Roxa
(aka: Malvasia Roxa)

Tinta
(aka: Tinta da Madeira)

Tinta Negra
(aka Tinta Negra Molle)
- most planted varietal on the island...?

Verdelho Tinto

===============

Also Authorized:

Tinto:
- Complexa, Deliciosa, Listrão, Triunfo

Branco:
- Caracol, Carão-de-Moça, Malvasia Branca de São Jorge, Moscatel Graúdo, Rio-Grande, Valveirinho

===============

** source = Jancis Robinson's 'Wine Grapes'

6

Allowed & Recommended Tinto Madeira Grapes

Recommended Tinto Casta:

Bastardo
- only a miniscule amount of this is planted here anymore.

Malvasia Cândida Roxa
(aka: Malvasia Roxa)

Tinta
(aka: Tinta da Madeira)

Tinta Negra
(aka Tinta Negra Molle)
- most planted varietal on the island...?

Verdelho Tinto

===============

Recommended Branco Casta:

Terrantez
- once thought to be identical to Folgasão, but now known as a distinct grape. This highly regarded grape no longer has any significant plantings.

Malvasia Fina
- 85% min of this grape must be used in Boal**

Malvasia Cândida
(aka: Malvasia di Lipari)
- was the main grape for Malmsey production; only 4 ha still remain planted (Malvasia Branca de São Jorge is the main grape used now)**

Sercial
(aka Esgana Cao - the "dog strangler")

Verdelho

===============

Also Authorized:

Tinto:
- Complexa, Deliciosa, Listrão, Triunfo

Branco:
- Caracol, Carão-de-Moça, Malvasia Branca de São Jorge, Moscatel Graúdo, Rio-Grande, Valveirinho

===============

** source = Jancis Robinson's 'Wine Grapes'

7

What is the min percentage of grapes

for varietal to appear on the label in Madeira?

85% min if a vintage does not appear on the label.

100% if the wine is vintage dated.

8

What two "noble" grapes virtually disappeared from Madeira after the 1870 phloxerra outbreak?

Bastardo

Terrantez

These varieties don't graft onto other rootstocks well so it was difficult to transfer the on to Phylloxera resistant rootstock...

9

What is

Saibro?

A decomposed red tufa soil of Madeira

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10

What is

Cascalho?

A stony soil of Madeira

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11

What is

Pedra Molle?

A sandy (arenaceous) soil, of decomposed yellow tufa of Madeira.

12

What is

Massapes?

A clay soil of Madeira.  

It is the result of the decomposition of dark tufa.

13

What is Porto Santo?

This is the other island in the Madeira archipeligo that Madeira can be produced on.

- has mainly volcanic, and limestone soils

14

ALL Allowed & Recommended Madeira Grapes

Recommended Branco Casta:

Terrantez
- once thought to be identical to Folgasão, but now known as a distinct grape. This highly regarded grape no longer has any significant plantings.

Malvasia Fina
- 85% min of this grape must be used in Boal**

Malvasia Cândida
(aka: Malvasia di Lipari)
- was the main grape for Malmsey production; only 4 ha still remain planted (Malvasia Branca de São Jorge is the main grape used now)**

Sercial
(aka Esgana Cao - the "dog strangler")

Verdelho

===============

Recommended Tinto Casta:

Bastardo
- only a miniscule amount of this is planted here anymore.

Malvasia Cândida Roxa
(aka: Malvasia Roxa)

Tinta
(aka: Tinta da Madeira)

Tinta Negra
(aka Tinta Negra Molle)
- most planted varietal on the island...?

Verdelho Tinto

===============

Also Authorized:

Tinto:
- Complexa, Deliciosa, Listrão, Triunfo

Branco:
- Caracol, Carão-de-Moça, Malvasia Branca de São Jorge, Moscatel Graúdo, Rio-Grande, Valveirinho

===============

** source = Jancis Robinson's 'Wine Grapes'

15

What is the ABV of the fortification spirit in Madeira?

95% ABV

Typically imported from France.

16

Describe the Estufagem process

After fortification the wines are placed in large tanks with metal coils inside.  These coils heat the wines to a temperature of:

45° - 50° C  -or-  113° - 122° F

It spends a minimum 3 months at this temperature to slowly caramelize the sugars.

After this is the Estágio period where it must rest for at least 90 days before it can be transferred to cask for its final aging period.

*Wines cannot be bottled until 12 months after Estufagem.

*Wines may not be released until 10/31 on the 2nd year from harvest.

17

Describe the Canteiro process

Wines are placed in casks in the attics of Madeira Lodges. These attics are exposed to the sun --through windows-- and naturally heated each day.

This process must take place over a minimum of 2 years.

Wines that have undergone Canteiro may not be bottled until a minimum of 3 years total aging after the fortification (including the 2 years exposed to the sun).

Canteiro is typically used for the best wines a Lodge will produce.  Many are destined to become Frasqueiras.

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18

What are Armazens de Calor?

Rooms used in a more delicate type of Estufagem process.

Barrels of Madeira are placed in these rooms which are slowly heated by nearby tanks or steam pipes. This process can take up to a year to "cook" the Madeira.

This process is most used by The Madeira Wine Company (Blandy's, and Cossart-Gordon).

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19

What are Poios?

The name for the terraces of Madeira

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20

What are Latadas?

The name of the low hanging Pergola training system of Madeira.

21

What are Levadas?

The system of canals on Madeira that help collect the rainwater from the upper high-altitude peaks.

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22

What are Partidistas?

Madeira traders who store wine and sell it at maturity to other traders for a profit.

Partidistas are similar to the almacenistas of the Sherry trade.

23

What is Estagio?

The mandatory 90 days resting period wines must undergo in Madeira after they have finished being heated in Estufa.

After this resting period they are transferred to casks for their final aging period.

24

At what temperature does the

Estufagem process take place?

45° - 50° C

-or-

113° - 122° F

25

What are the aging requirements of

Madeira (Normale)?

*2 years min aging
*released 10/31 on 2nd year

==========

Rainwater
*youngest wine is 3 years old

Seleccionada
Finest - Choice - Select
*3-5 years old

Reserve
*5-10 years old

Special Reserve
*10-15 years old

Extra Reserve
*15-20 years old

Solera
*5 years min in Solera
(10% Max can be drawn each year)

Vinho de Canteiro
*2 years min in wood
** cannot bottle until 36 months after final fortification

Vinho do Estufagem
*can be bottled 12 months after Estufagem
- may not be released until 2 year from harvest date

Colheita/Vintage
*5 years min aging from 10/31 before bottling

Frasqueira
(must be vintage dated)
*20 years min in wood

Vinho da Roda
Vinho da Torno
Vinho da Volta

(must be vintage dated)
Underwent Torna Viagem

26

What are the aging requirements of

Madeira (rainwater)?

*youngest wine is 3 years old

==========

Normale Aging
*released 10/31 on 2nd year

Seleccionada
Finest - Choice - Select
*3-5 years old

Reserve
*5-10 years old

Special Reserve
*10-15 years old

Extra Reserve
*15-20 years old

Solera
*5 years min in Solera
(10% Max can be drawn each year)

Vinho de Canteiro
*2 years min in wood
** cannot bottle until 36 months after final fortification

Vinho do Estufagem
*can be bottled 12 months after Estufagem
- may not be released until 2 year from harvest date

Colheita/Vintage
*5 years min aging from 10/31 before bottling

Frasqueira
(must be vintage dated)
*20 years min in wood

Vinho da Roda
Vinho da Torno
Vinho da Volta

(must be vintage dated)
Underwent Torna Viagem

27

What are the aging requirements of

Madeira (seleccionada)?

aka: Finest - Choice - Select
*3-5 years old

==========

Normale Aging
*released 10/31 on 2nd year

Rainwater
*youngest wine is 3 years old

Reserve
*5-10 years old

Special Reserve
*10-15 years old

Extra Reserve
*15-20 years old

Solera
*5 years min in Solera
(10% Max can be drawn each year)

Vinho de Canteiro
*2 years min in wood
** cannot bottle until 36 months after final fortification

Vinho do Estufagem
*can be bottled 12 months after Estufagem
- may not be released until 2 year from harvest date

Colheita/Vintage
*5 years min aging from 10/31 before bottling

Frasqueira
(must be vintage dated)
*20 years min in wood

Vinho da Roda
Vinho da Torno
Vinho da Volta

(must be vintage dated)
Underwent Torna Viagem

28

What are the aging requirements of

Madeira (reserve)?

*5-10 years old

==========

Normale Aging
*released 10/31 on 2nd year

Rainwater
*youngest wine is 3 years old

Seleccionada
Finest - Choice - Select
*3-5 years old

Special Reserve
*10-15 years old

Extra Reserve
*15-20 years old

Solera
*5 years min in Solera
(10% Max can be drawn each year)

Vinho de Canteiro
*2 years min in wood
** cannot bottle until 36 months after final fortification

Vinho do Estufagem
*can be bottled 12 months after Estufagem
- may not be released until 2 year from harvest date

Colheita/Vintage
*5 years min aging from 10/31 before bottling

Frasqueira
(must be vintage dated)
*20 years min in wood

Vinho da Roda
Vinho da Torno
Vinho da Volta

(must be vintage dated)
Underwent Torna Viagem

29

What are the aging requirements of

Madeira (special reserve)?

*10-15 years old

==========

Normale Aging
*released 10/31 on 2nd year

Rainwater
*youngest wine is 3 years old

Seleccionada
Finest - Choice - Select
*3-5 years old

Reserve
*5-10 years old

Extra Reserve
*15-20 years old

Solera
*5 years min in Solera
(10% Max can be drawn each year)

Vinho de Canteiro
*2 years min in wood
** cannot bottle until 36 months after final fortification

Vinho do Estufagem
*can be bottled 12 months after Estufagem
- may not be released until 2 year from harvest date

Colheita/Vintage
*5 years min aging from 10/31 before bottling

Frasqueira
(must be vintage dated)
*20 years min in wood

Vinho da Roda
Vinho da Torno
Vinho da Volta

(must be vintage dated)
Underwent Torna Viagem

30

What are the aging requirements of

Madeira (extra reserve)?

*15-20 years old

==========

Normale Aging
*released 10/31 on 2nd year

Rainwater
*youngest wine is 3 years old

Seleccionada
Finest - Choice - Select
*3-5 years old

Reserve
*5-10 years old

Special Reserve
*10-15 years old

Solera
*5 years min in Solera
(10% Max can be drawn each year)

Vinho de Canteiro
*2 years min in wood
** cannot bottle until 36 months after final fortification

Vinho do Estufagem
*can be bottled 12 months after Estufagem
- may not be released until 2 year from harvest date

Colheita/Vintage
*5 years min aging from 10/31 before bottling

Frasqueira
(must be vintage dated)
*20 years min in wood

Vinho da Roda
Vinho da Torno
Vinho da Volta

(must be vintage dated)
Underwent Torna Viagem

31

What are the aging requirements of

Madeira (solera)?

*5 years min in Solera

(10% Max can be drawn each year)

==========

Normale Aging
*released 10/31 on 2nd year

Rainwater
*youngest wine is 3 years old

Seleccionada
Finest - Choice - Select
*3-5 years old

Reserve
*5-10 years old

Special Reserve
*10-15 years old

Extra Reserve
*15-20 years old

Vinho de Canteiro
*2 years min in wood
** cannot bottle until 36 months after final fortification

Vinho do Estufagem
*can be bottled 12 months after Estufagem
- may not be released until 2 year from harvest date

Colheita/Vintage
*5 years min aging from 10/31 before bottling

Frasqueira
(must be vintage dated)
*20 years min in wood

Vinho da Roda
Vinho da Torno
Vinho da Volta

(must be vintage dated)
Underwent Torna Viagem

32

What are the aging requirements of

Madeira (vinho de canteiro)?

*2 years min in wood

** cannot bottle until 36 months after final fortification

==========

Normale Aging
*released 10/31 on 2nd year

Rainwater
*youngest wine is 3 years old

Seleccionada
Finest - Choice - Select
*3-5 years old

Reserve
*5-10 years old

Special Reserve
*10-15 years old

Extra Reserve
*15-20 years old

Solera
*5 years min in Solera
(10% Max can be drawn each year)

Vinho do Estufagem
*can be bottled 12 months after Estufagem
- may not be released until 2 year from harvest date

Colheita/Vintage
*5 years min aging from 10/31 before bottling

Frasqueira
(must be vintage dated)
*20 years min in wood

Vinho da Roda
Vinho da Torno
Vinho da Volta

(must be vintage dated)
Underwent Torna Viagem

33

What are the aging requirements of

Madeira (vinho do estufagem)?

*90 days min in Estufa

*90 days min resting in Estagio period

*cannot be bottled until min 12 months after Estufagem

- may not be released until 10/31 on 2nd year from harvest date

==========

Normale Aging
*released 10/31 on 2nd year

Rainwater
*youngest wine is 3 years old

Seleccionada
Finest - Choice - Select
*3-5 years old

Reserve
*5-10 years old

Special Reserve
*10-15 years old

Extra Reserve
*15-20 years old

Solera
*5 years min in Solera
(10% Max can be drawn each year)

Vinho de Canteiro
*2 years min in wood
** cannot bottle until 36 months after final fortification

Colheita/Vintage
*5 years min aging from 10/31 before bottling

Frasqueira
(must be vintage dated)
*20 years min in wood

Vinho da Roda
Vinho da Torno
Vinho da Volta

(must be vintage dated)
Underwent Torna Viagem

34

What are the aging requirements of

Madeira (colheita / vintage)?

*5 years min aging from 10/31 before bottling

==========

Normale Aging
*released 10/31 on 2nd year

Rainwater
*youngest wine is 3 years old

Seleccionada
Finest - Choice - Select
*3-5 years old

Reserve
*5-10 years old

Special Reserve
*10-15 years old

Extra Reserve
*15-20 years old

Solera
*5 years min in Solera
(10% Max can be drawn each year)

Vinho de Canteiro
*2 years min in wood
** cannot bottle until 36 months after final fortification

Vinho do Estufagem
*can be bottled 12 months after Estufagem
- may not be released until 2 year from harvest date

Frasqueira
(must be vintage dated)
*20 years min in wood

Vinho da Roda
Vinho da Torno
Vinho da Volta

(must be vintage dated)
Underwent Torna Viagem

35

What are the aging requirements of

Madeira (frasqueira)?

*20 years min in wood

(must be vintage dated)

==========

Normale Aging
*released 10/31 on 2nd year

Rainwater
*youngest wine is 3 years old

Seleccionada
Finest - Choice - Select
*3-5 years old

Reserve
*5-10 years old

Special Reserve
*10-15 years old

Extra Reserve
*15-20 years old

Solera
*5 years min in Solera
(10% Max can be drawn each year)

Vinho de Canteiro
*2 years min in wood
** cannot bottle until 36 months after final fortification

Vinho do Estufagem
*can be bottled 12 months after Estufagem
- may not be released until 2 year from harvest date

Colheita/Vintage
*5 years min aging from 10/31 before bottling

Vinho da Roda
Vinho da Torno
Vinho da Volta

(must be vintage dated)
Underwent Torna Viagem

36

Madeira DOP

(Lic!)

Licoroso Only!!

~80 hl/ha~
~17-22% min ABV~

Best Branco Casta
Malvasia Candida, Malvasia FIna,
Terrantez, Sercial, Verdelho

Best Tinta Casta
Bastardo, Malvasia Candida Roxa,
Tinta da Madiera, Tinta Negra Mole,
Verdelho Tinto

==========

Normale Aging
*2 years min aging

Rainwater
*3 years min aging

Seleccionada
Finest - Choice - Select
*3-5 years old

Reserve
*5-10 years old

Special Reserve
*10-15 years old

Extra Reserve
*15-20 years old

Solera
*5 years min in Solera
(10% Max can be drawn each year)

Vinho de Canteiro
*2 years min in wood
** cannot bottle until 36 months after final fortification

Vinho do Estufagem
*can be bottled 12 months after Estufage
- may not be released until 2 year from harvest date

Colheita/Vintage
*5 years min aging from 10/31 before bottling

Frasqueira
(must be vintage dated)
*20 years min in wood

Vinho da Roda
Vinho da Torno
Vinho da Volta

(must be vintage dated)
Underwent Torna Viagem

37

What are the aging requirements of

Madeira (vinho da Roda/Torna/Volta)?

Underwent Torna Viagem

(must be vintage dated)

==========

Normale Aging
*released 10/31 on 2nd year

Rainwater
*youngest wine is 3 years old

Seleccionada
Finest - Choice - Select
*3-5 years old

Reserve
*5-10 years old

Special Reserve
*10-15 years old

Extra Reserve
*15-20 years old

Solera
*5 years min in Solera
(10% Max can be drawn each year)

Vinho de Canteiro
*2 years min in wood
** cannot bottle until 36 months after final fortification

Vinho do Estufagem
*can be bottled 12 months after Estufagem
- may not be released until 2 year from harvest date

Colheita/Vintage
*5 years min aging from 10/31 before bottling

Frasqueira
(must be vintage dated)
*20 years min in wood

38

What are the aging requirements of

All aging levels of Madeira?

~17 - 22% ABV~

*2 years min aging

Vinho de Canteiro
*2 years in wood,
- may not be bottled for 36 months after the final fortification.

Vinho de Estufagem
*90 days min "ccoking" in the Estufa
*May not be bottled until 1 year from the conclusion of the estufagem process
*This 1 year includes the mandatory 90 days "Estagio" resting period after "cooking" in the Estufa
- may not be released until 10/31 on 2nd year from the harvest.

Reserve/Reserva
*5 years min aging

Colheita
*5 years min aging

Solera
*5 years in the solera
- only 10% may be drawn off each year

Special Reserve
*10 years min aging

Extra Reserve
*15 years min aging

Frasqueira
*20 years in wood - vintage - but cannot use term vintage - min 85% vintage

Vinho da Roda
Vinho da Torno
Vinho da Volta

- wine that crossed the equator on a Tourna Viagem