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Flashcards in Positioning Deck (169)
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1

How much should the femur be abducted for the Lauenstein method for hip?

40-45 degrees (with knee flexed 90 degress)

2

Where is the CR placed for unilateral frog leg projection

mid femoral neck

3

The Judet Method demostrates the

Acetabulum

4

Lateral of the hip is also called

Frog or Modified Cleaves or Lauenstein Method

5

How much should the femur be abducted for the Cleaves Method for the hip?

40-45 degrees

6

A male pelvis has a ________ angle while female pelvis has a _________

Male - Less than 90 degrees acute

Female - greater than 90 degrees obtuse

7

Trauma Hip most often used is called

Danellius - Miller or Cross- table lateral or Axiolateral (inferosuperior)

8

The AP Axial outlet projection for the pelvic ring requires the CR angle to be

20 - 35 degrees females
30 - 45 degrees males

9

The modified axiolateral trauma hip when both hips can’t be moved is called

Clements - Nakayama Method

10

Center of AP Hip (with hardware)

1-2” distal to neck of femur (all hardware must be demonstrated)

11

Three differences in a female and male pelvis are

Males have narrower, deeper and less flared

Angle of the pubic arch is less than 90 degrees

Shape of the inlet is more narrower and more oval or heart shape

12

The AP Inlet Projection for the pelvic ring requires the CR angle to be

40 degrees caudad

13

If the femoral neck is foreshortened and the lesser trochanter in profile medially on the radiograph. What is probable cause for positioning

External rotation of the leg and foot

14

What pathology is best demonstrated with the Judet Method

acetabular fractures

15

The ankle joint is formed by what 3 bones

Tibia, fibula, talus

16

The mortise position demonstrates the joint and should have even space over entire _____

Talar surface

17

When taking patient history for the hip xray, it is important to ask about the prosthesis or any hip surgery for what two reasons

So you can position patient without injuring the site

To make sure you center lower to include all the hardware

18

A 15 degrees internal rotation of the ankle in AP oblique projection is called the

Mortise Projection

19

What is the difference between the AP Mortise and AP oblique ankle projections for positioning?

AP Mortise - 15-20 degrees internal rotation

AP Oblique - 45 degrees internal rotation

20

Which malleolus is longer and is extension of the fibula

Lateral Malleolus

21

What are inversion/eversion of the ankle for?

Stress views that are used to demonstrate ligament damage

22

Positioning for the AP Mortise with how many degrees medial rotation

15-20 degrees medial rotation, centered to ankle (demonstrates ankle mortise)

23

The ankle is what type of joint, with what type of movement?

Synovial Joint, sellar or saddle type, movement is flexion, extension

24

How many tarsals are there?

Seven
Calcaneus, Cuboid, Talus, Navicular, and the medial, middle and lateral cuneiforms.

25

Where can you find sesamoid bones in the foot?

Embedded in tendons, near joints, plantar surface

26

Special projection for the foot to show longitudinal arches?

AP and Lateral weight-bearing, CR 15 degrees posterior to base of metatarsal

27

Does Lisfranc joint injury of the foot, requires a decrease or increase in technique?

Increase to penetrate tarsal region

28

What is the common trauma site for the foot that provide attachment of a tendon, and what is the projection for this

Tuberosity of the 5th metatarsal
Oblique Medial of the foot

29

Longest and strongest bone

Femur

30

Name three knee positions that are tunnel projections

Beclere, Camp-Coventry, Homblad

31

Name two tangential knee projections

Merchant, Sunrise

32

Difference between medial and lateral epicondyle of the knee is the presence of

Adductor tubercle on the posterior side of the medial condylethat receives the tendon of the adductor muscle

33

What do all tunnel view demostrate

Intercondylar Fossa

34

How do you position patient in Camp Coventry Method

Patient supine, flex knee 40-50 degrees, CR to knee joint or popliteal depression, perpendicular ti tib/fib, 40 SID

35

The Settegast Method is also called inferosuperior projection requires the knne flexed _____ degrees and the CR angle _____ to the lower legs

40-45 degrees, 10-15 degrees

36

The medial and lateral condyles of the femur articulate with

The tibia

37

Why must the CR angle for a lateral knee be 5-7 degrees cephalad

The medial femoral condyle extends lower than the lateral femoral condyle when the femoral shaft is vertical

38

What is the largest joint space of the human body

Cavity of the knee joint

39

Beclere Method (AP Axial) for tunnel knee requires ______ degree knee flexion, CR angle of ______ degrees and CR centered ______

40-45 degrees knee flexion
40-45 degrees cephalad
CR 1/2 inch distal to apex of patella

40

Holmblad Method (PA Axial) for tunnel knee requires _____ degree knee flexion, CR angle of ______ degrees.

60-70 degree knee flexion
CR perpendicular to IR (no angulation)

41

The term engorgement literally means

Distended or swollen with fluid

42

___________ is an excess of blood partially resulting to from a relaxation of the distal small blood vessels or arterioles.

Hyperemia

43

An _______ position in general tends to minimize the engorgement and hyperemia of pulmonary vessels, whereas ________ position will increase this, w/c can change the radiographic appearance of these vessel and the lungs in general.

Erect
Supine

44

Chest radiographs if taken AP instead of PA at 72 inches will cause

Increased magnification of the heart shadow

45

On a true PA chest, what is the evident that there is no rotation

Both the right and left sternal ends of the clavicles will be the same distance from the center of the spine

46

The seperation of the posterior ribs resulting from divergence of the xray beam at the commonly used 72inches (180cm) SID should only be _______, anymore seperation than this indicates rotation of the thorax from a true lateral position.

1/4 to 1/2 inches or about 1cm.

47

What is the evidence that a lateral chest have excessive rotation

Amount of separation of the right and left posterior ribs
Separation of two costiphrenic angles

48

Vertebra prominens corresponds to the level of ______ and the uppermost margin of the apex of the lungs.

T1

49

The CR for PA chest is at the

Level of T7 (midthorax)
Also near at the level of inferior angle of scapula on average px
3-4 inches below the jugular notch

50

____________ is an irreversible dilation or widening of the bronchi or bronchioles resulting from repeated pulmonary infection or obstruction.

Bronchiectasis

(Increase exposure factor)

51

___________ is a form of persistent obstruction of airway caused bu either emphysema or chronic bronchitis.

COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease)

(Decrease exposure factor)

52

___________ irreversible and chronic lung dissease, in which alveoli air spaces become greatly enlarged as a result of alveolar wall destruction and loss of alveolar elasticity.

Emphysema

(Decrease exposure factor depend on severity)

53

________ shortness of breath which creates a sensation of difficulty in breathing, most common in older persons.

Dyspnea

54

For possible fluid in pleural cavity (pleural effusion), the suspected side should be ______.

Down

55

For possible small amounts of air in pleural cavity, the affected side should be ______.

UP

56

A ________ beam must be used to show air-fluid level or pneumothorax.

Horizontal beam

57

If patient is weak and unstable and/or not able to assume yhe lordotic position, an ___________ projection may be taken with the patient erect or supine position with back against table or IR.

AP Semi-Axial Projection

58

The central ray for AP Semi-Axial Projection is ________ degrees cephalad to the mid sternum

15-20

59

For anterior oblique of the chest, the side of interest is generally the side ________ from the IR. Thus the RAO will best visualize the ______ lung.

Farthest
Left Lung

60

Certain positions for studies of the heart require an LAO with an increase in rotation to ______ degrees.

60

61

Less rotation _______ degrees may be of value for better visualization of the various areas of the lungs for possible pulmonary disease.

15-20

62

Posterior obliques of the chest best visualize the side _______ to the IR.

Closest

63

Soft tissue lateral is frequently taken to rule out ________, which may be life threatening for a young child.

Epiglottitis

64

If the area of interest is primarily the larynx and upper trachea, the IR and CR should be

Laryngeal Prominence (C5)

65

If the are of interest is the distal larynx and upper and mid trachea, the IR and CR should be

At the upper jugular notch (T1)

66

Respiration for upper airway is during a _____________ to ensure filling trachea and upper airway with air.

Slow, deep inspiration

67

Vertebra prominence is at level of

C7

68

Xiphoid tip is at level of

Level of T9-T10

69

Inferior costal rib margin

Level of L2-L3

70

__________ a chronic inflammation of the intestinal wall that can result in bowel obstruction (most common in young adults, from unknown cause)

Crohn’s Disease

71

Patient should be on side for a minimum of ______ minutes before exposure( to allow air to rise or abnormal fluids to accumulate, ______ minutes is preferred, if possible to beat demonstrate potential small amounts of intraperitoneal air.

5 minutes
10-20 minutes

72

_________________best visualizes free intraperitoneal air in the area of liver in the right upper abdomen away from the gastric bubble.

Left Lateral Decubitus

73

_____________ replaces erect position of the abdomen, if the patient is too ill to stand

Left Lateral decubitus

74

Open ups and best demonstrates the carpals on the opposite side (radial side) of the wrist, namely scaphoid, trapezium and trapezoid.

Ulnar Deviation (Special Scaphoid Projection)

75

Opens and best demonstrates the carpals on the ulnar side of the wrist, namely hamate, pisiform, triquetrum and lunate.

Radial Deviation

76

On AP Projection of the elbow, _________ rotation separate the radius and ulna and ________ rotaion superimposes.

Lateral Rotation
Medial Rotation

77

Fracture and dislocation of the posterior lip of the radius involving the wrist joint.

Barton’s Fracture

78

Fracture of the base of the first metacarpal bone, extenting into the CMJ, complicated by subluxation with some posterior displacement.

Bennett’s Fracture

79

A transverse fracture extending through the metacarpal neck; most commonly seen in the fifth metacarpal

Boxer’s Fracture

80

A transverse fracture of the distal radius with the distal fragment being displaced posteriorly; an associated ulnar styloid fracture seen in 50-60% of cases.

Colles’ Fracture

81

Reverse of Colle’s fracture, or a transverse fracture of the distal radius with the distal fragment displaced anteriorly

Smith’s Fracture

82

Demostrates fractures and/or dislocation of the first carpometacarpal joint. Base of 1st metacarpal is demonstrated for ruling out Bennett’s Fracture

AP Projection (Modified Robert’s Method) Thumb

83

For Modified Roberts Method, CR directed _____________(toward wrist), entering the first CM joint

15 degrees proximally

84

This position is performed commonly to evaluate for early evidence of rheumatoid arthritis at the 2nd through 5th proximal phalanges.

Norgaard Method or Ball-Cather’s Position

85

For Pa Scaphoid, angle CR ____________, along long axis of forearm and toward elbow, Center CR to _________.

10-15 degrees proximally
Scaphoid

86

Modified Stecher Method of the wrist indicates that elevation of the hand ______ degrees rather than angling the CR places the scaphoid parallel to IR.

20 degrees

87

This projection is performed most commonly to rule out abnormal calcification and bony changes in the carpal sulcus that may create impingement on the median nerve, as with carpal tunnel syndrome.

Gaynor-Hart Method

88

For Gaynor-Hart Method angle CR ____________ to the long axis of the hand.

25-30 degrees

89

When elbow cannot be fully extended, obtain two AP Projections, one with _________ parallel to IR, one with __________ parallel to IR.

Forearm
Humerus

90

Of patient cannot partially extend elbow and elbow remains flexed near 90 degrees, take the two AP Projections as described but angle CR to _________ into elbow joint or if flexed more than 90degrees, take the ________ position.

10-15 degrees
Jones Position

91

_____________ rotation of the elbow best visualizes radial head, neck and capitulum of humerus.

External Oblique

92

____________ rotaion of the elbow best visualizes coronoid process of ulna and trochlea in profile.

Internal Oblique

93

For Jones Method, acute flexion, there are two projections required to visualize both the distal humerus and proximal radius and ulna. What are these?

CR perpendicular to humerus
CR angled so that it is perpendicular to the forearm

94

Best demonstrate fracture of the elbow, particularly the radial head and coronoid process. Effective projections when patient cannot extend elbow fully for medial or lateral obliques of the elbow.

Coyle Method (Trauma Axial Lateral)

95

In AP Projection of the humerus, what is the evidence that it’s in True AP projection.

Greater tubercle is seen in profile laterally
Humeral head is partially seen in profile medially with minimal superimposition of the glenoid cavity
Lateral and Medial epicondyles are both visualized in profile

96

___________ is a fracture of the anterior glenoid rim

Bankart Lesion

97

Is a compression fracture of the articular surface of the humeral head often associated with an anterior dislocation of the humeral head.

Hill-Sachs Defect

98

Is a traumatic injury to one or more muscles, teres minor, supraspinous, infraspinous and subspularis. It limits the range of motion to the shoulder.

Rotator Cuff Tear

99

Full external rotation of the shoulder is evidenced by the ______________ visualize in full profile on the lateral aspect of the proximal humerus.

Greater Tubercle

100

What projection in which px abduct arm 90 degrees from body, palm up in external rotation, CR medially 25-30 degrees, centered horizontally to axilla and humeral head.

Lawrence Method (Inferosuperior Axial Projection)

101

The external oblique position of the elbow, require how many rotation of the arm

40-45 degrees

102

What is the angle of the tube in the carpal canal projection?

20-25 degrees

103

On a true AP Projection of the proximal humerus, note that the lesser tubercle is located ___________ and the greater tubercle is located _____________.

Anteriorly
Laterally

104

AP shoulder in external position places the _________ in a true AP or frontal projection.

Humerus

105

Scapulohumeral (glenohumeral) jt is what kind of movement, which allows greater freedom of movement.

Spheroidal or ball and socket joint

106

Sternoclavicular joint is what kind of movent? Acromioclavicular joint?

Plane or gliding

107

The internal rotation of the shoulder places the humerus in what position?

Lateral position

108

The neutral AP projection of the shoulder places the epocondyles of the distal humerus at an approximate how many degrees to the IR.

45 degrees to the IR, and results in 45degrees oblique position of the humerus when palm of the hand facing inward against the thigh.

109

Is commonly used to image soft-tissue parhologies such as rotator cuff tears associated with shoulder girdle.

Arthrography

110

A projection wherein the patient is in prone position, elbow flexed and forearm hanging down, CR directed 25degrees anterior and 25 degrees medially passing theoigh midscapulohumeral joint. Performed for specific pathology such as Hill-Sachs defects and Bankart Lesions.

West Point Method
Inferosuperior Axial Projection

111

In Grashey method, how many degrees body rotation and what should be seen in profile in this projection.

35-45 degrees body rotation
Glenoid Cavity

112

Demonstrate pathologies of the intertubercular groove, such as bony projection of the humeral tubercles.

Fisk Method, Tangential Projection: Intertubercular (Bicipital) Groove

113

Patient standing, leaning over end of table with elbow flexed and posterior surface of forearm resting on table, hand supinated holding casette, head turned away from affected side, is what position?

Fisk Method

114

In Fisk Method, a correct CR angle of 10-15 degrees to the long axis of humerus will demostrate ____________ and __________ in profile without superimposition of acromion process.

Intertubercular groove and Tubercles

115

What breathing technique is preferred in Transthoracic (Lawrence Method) if patient can cooperate, and this will best visualize the proximal humerus by blurring out ribs and lung structures.

Breathe slow, shallow breaths

116

If patient is in too much pain to drop injured shoulder and elevate uninjured arm and shoulder high enough to prevent superimposition of shoulders, angle CR __________.

CR 10-15 degrees cephalad

117

This projection specifically demostrates the coracoacromial arch for possible outlet region for possible shoulder impingement. CR 10-15 degrees caudal angle

Neer Method
Tangential Projection-Supraspinatus Outlet

118

Patient erect or supine, rotate body 45 degrees toward affected side, posterior surface against IR, flexed elbow and placed arm across chest. CR 45 degrees caudad centered to SHJ.

Garth Method, AP Apical Oblique Axial Projection

119

Patient should not be asked to hold on to the weights with their hands, rather the weights should be attached to the _______ so that the hands, arms and shoulders are relaxed to determine possible AC joint separation.

Wrists

120

Patient reach across front of chest and grasp opposite shoulder, this demonstrates

Body of scapula

121

Px drop affected arm, flex elbow and place arm behind lower back with arm partially abducted, or just let arm hang down at patients side, this demonstrates

Acromion and coracoid process

122

Is an inflammation of the bone and cartilage involving the anterior proximal tibia and is most common in boys ages 10-15.

Osgood Schlatter Disease

123

Also called osteochondroma, is a benign, neoplastic bone lesion caused by consolidated overproduction of bone at a joint (usually knee).

Exostosis

124

The external oblique position of the elbow, require how many rotation of the arm

40-45 degrees

125

What is the angle of the tube in the carpal canal projection?

20-25 degrees

126

For AP Mortise Projection, how many degrees internal rotation should be done?

15 to 20 degrees

127

Demonstrate pathology involving ankle joint separation due to ligament tear or rupture

AP stress projection of the ankle: inversion and eversion positions

128

What is the position for Camp Coventry Method?

Patient in prone position, knee flexed 40-50 degrees (provide support)

129

What is the position for Homblad Method?

Patient in kneeling position, ask patient to lean forward 20-30 degrees and hold that position, results in 60-70 degrees knee flexion

130

Pleural effusion, Tech must increase

MAS by 35%

131

Trochlea articulates with the

Ulna

132

Capitulum articulates with the

Radius

133

Cartilaginous joints are called:

Amphiarthroses

134

synarthroses are

fibrous joints

135

diarthroses are

synovial joints

136

The bulge at the upper end of the stomach is called the:

Fundus

137

For the right PA oblique projection (RAO) for the sternum, the body should be rotated how many degrees?

15-20 degrees

138

A skull that is short from front to back and broad from side to side would be described as:

Brachycephalic

139

Cavity within a bone is described as a:

Sinus

140

fossa is a

pit and a groove

141

sulcus is a

Furrow

142

The carpometacarpal joint of the thumb has what type of movement?

Saddle

* A saddle joint permits flexion, extension, adduction, and abduction and has opposing surfaces that are concavoconvex, such as the carpometacarpal joint of the thumb.

143

For an axial projection of the calcaneus, the central ray enters at the:

Base of the third metatarsal, 40 degrees cephalic

144

For the lateral projection of the chest, the central ray is directed:


2 inches anterior to the midaxillary plane at the level

145

The portion of the small bowel in which the greatest amount absorption takes place.

Jejunum

146

A large rounded projection is called a:

Tuberosity

147

The serous membrane surrounding the visceral and parietal layers of each lung is called the:

Pleura

148

For the AP oblique projection (LPO and RPO) for the colon, the patient is rotated how many degrees from the supine position?

35-45

149

Directing the central ray 5 to 7 degrees cephalic is done for what projection?

AP Knee

150

The pelvocalyceal system will visualize approximately how many minutes after injection?

2-8 mins

151

For a lateral L5 -S1 projection of the lumbar spine, the central ray is directed:


Perpendicular to L5 at a point 1.5 inches anterior to the palpated spinous process of L5 and 1.5 inches inferior to the iliac crest

152

This bone is located in the wrist on the medial side of the proximal row:

Pisiform

153

For the lateral projection for the sinuses, the central ray enters:


0.5 to 1.0 inch posterior to the outer canthus

154

For an AP projection of the thoracic spine, the central ray is directed:


3 to 4 inches distal to the jugular

155

Which of the following is (are) located just below the head of the humerus?

Greater and lesser tubercles

156

This bone is located beneath the talus:

Calcaneus

157

The inner part of the kidney is called the:

Medulla

158

The cardiac portion is where the:

Esophagus enter the stomach

159

For what projection does the OML form and angle of 37 degrees with the cassette?

Parietoacanthial (Waters) for sinuses

160

Which of the following bones has a coronoid process?

Mandible

161

Which of the following bones has (have) costal facets?

Thoracic Vertebra

162

The patient's body is rotated 30 degrees for what projection?

RPO and LPO of kidneys

163

The functional part of the kidney is called the:

Nephron

164

For a lateral projection of the ankle, the central ray is directed perpendicular to the:

Medial Malleolus

165

This bone is located in the wrist on the lateral side of the proximal row:

Scaphoid

166

The wrist and ankle have what type of movement?

Gliding

167

The elbow has what type of movement?

Hinge

* The elbow permits motion in only one plane; therefore, it functions as a hinge.

168

To demonstrate foramen rotundum in the PA Axial projection, it is necessary to:

Direct the CR at 25 to 30 degrees caudad

169

In the Supero-inferior (axial) of the shoulder,when the patient can't abduct his arm due to trauma, the part below will not appear...

Glenoid cavity