Flashcards in Radiographic Procedures Deck (79)
Cricoid cartilage of larynx is in what level
Level of C6
Esophagus terminates at its connection to the stomach at the level of
Act of swallowing
Is an inflammation and enlargement of the parotid glands which on about 30 percent of males past puberty also results in inflammation of testes
The esophagus pierces the diaphragm at the level of
An obviuos notch, located along the lesser curvature of the stomach, closer to the pyloric orifice.
Angular notch or incisura angularis
Is the aperture or opening between esophagus and stomach which is guided my circular muscles of the cardiac sphincter
Esophagogastric junction or Cardiac Orifice
A notch found at the junction of the esophagus and greater curvature of the stomach is termed the
Cardiac Notch or Incisura Cardiaca
Is about 10inches (25cm) ling, and it is the shortest, wides and most fixed portion of the small bowel
The junction of duodenum with the second portion of small bowel, the jejunum is relatively fixed and held in place bh a fibrois muscular band
Ligament of Treitz
A pathologic constricture termed a ___________ is evident at the distal esophagus, a type of hiatal hernia wherein the esophagogastric junction has herniated theough the diaphragmatic opening.
Describe Hypersthenic Px
☑️Massive body build
☑️chest and abdomen being very broad and deep from front to back
☑️lungs short and wide
☑️diaphragm is quite high
☑️heart short and wide lies in a transverse axis
☑️transverse colon quite high
☑️entire large bowel extends to the periphery of the abdominal cavity
☑️GB higher and more to the right, almost transverse and lies well away from the midline
☑️stomach bery high and assumes transverse position
Describe Asthenic type of body habitus
☑️extremely slender build
☑️chest cavity narrow, shallow and quite long
☑️diaphragm lies very low
☑️heart long and slender
☑️large bowel found folds on itself, very low, toward the midline
☑️GB & stomach are both low, vertical near midline
☑️abdominal cavity is shallow
☑️average body build
☑️stomach J-shaped and located lower
☑️GB less transverse
☑️splenic flexire of the large bowel is offen quite high, resting under the left diaphragm
☑️more slender asthenic build
☑️stomach elongated, J-shape & extends to iliac crest or below
☑️GB is lower and toward the midline compared to sthenic
☑️large bowel is located lower than in average
☑️splenic flexire may still be found hig in ULQ
To demonstrate esophageal varices, the patient must be examined in
The usual patient preparation for an upper GI series is
NPO after midnight
Peripheral lymphatic vessels are located using
Which procedures will best demonstrate the cephalic, basilic, and subclavian veins?
Upper limb venogram
Which of the following radiologic examinations can demonstrate ureteral reflux?
Double-contrast examinations of the stomach or large bowel are performed to better visualize the
Gastric or mucosa
Which of the following structures is (are) most likely to be demonstrated in a right lateral decubitus position of a double-contrast BE?
1. Lateral wall of the descending colon
2. Medial wall of the ascending colon
The contrast media of choice for use in myelography are
Non ionic water soluble
Which of the following radiologic procedures requires that a contrast medium be injected into the renal pelvis via a catheter placed within the ureter?
During GI radiography, the position of the stomach may vary depending on
1. respiratory phase.
2. body habitus.
3. patient position.
With which of the following is zonography associated?
1. Thick tomographic cuts
2. Less blurring than with pluridirectional tomography because a narrow exposure angle is used
To better demonstrate contrast-filled distal ureters during IV urography, it is helpful to
use a 15º AP Trendelenburg position.
T-tube cholangiography is performed
During intravenous (IV) urography, the prone position is generally recommended to demonstrate
1. filling of obstructed ureters.
2. the renal pelvis.
Which of the following is the correct sequence of events when performing a double-contrast upper GI series?
Patient is given gas-producing substance, then given a small amount of high-density barium, then placed recumbent.
Following the ingestion of a fatty meal, what hormone is secreted by the duodenal mucosa to stimulate contraction of the gallbladder?
Ingestion of barium sulfate is contraindicated in which of the following situations?
1. Suspected perforation of a hollow viscus
2. Suspected large-bowel obstruction
3. Presurgical patients
The advantages of digital subtraction angiography over film angiography include
1. greater contrast medium sensitivity.
2. immediately available images.
Which of the following examinations require(s) ureteral catheterization?
is a radiologic procedure that functions to dilate a stenotic
When the erect position is requested as part of an IVP, it is used to demonstrate
In myelography, the contrast medium is generally injected into the
subarachnoid space between the third and fourth lumbar vertebrae.
Knee arthrography may be performed to demonstrate a
1. torn meniscus.
2. Baker's cyst.
The AP Trendelenburg position is often used during an upper GI examination to demonstrate
Which of the following equipment is necessary for ERCP?
1. A fluoroscopic unit with spot film and tilt table capabilities
2. A fiberoptic endoscope
3. Polyethylene catheters
Which projection(s) of the abdomen would be used to demonstrate pneumoperitoneum?
Left lateral decubitus
Which of the following interventional procedures can be used to increase the diameter of a stenosed vessel?
1. percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA)
2. stent placement
Radiolucent or negative contrast media include
swallowed air, CO2, gas crystals and normally present gas bubble in the stomach
Most common positive or radiopaque contrast medium
Contraindication of Barium Sulfate
*water-soluble, iodinated contrast is used but not to be used whrn patient is sensitive to iodine.
Will be demonstrated better with a double contrast technique
potential polyps, diverticulae and ulcers
Study the form and function of the swallowing aspects of the pharynx and esophagus
Dilation of the veins of distal esophagus. This condition is often seen with acute liver disease such as cirrhosis. In advance cases the vein may begin to bleed.
The use of _____ barium allows better visualization of mucosal patters and any lesion within the esophagus.
The patient may be asked to perform one of the following procedures to detect esophageal reflux
* Breathing exercises
*The Water Test
* Toe-Touch Maneuver
This maneuver forces air against the closed glottis. Patient is asked to take a deep breath and while holding the breath in, to bear down as though trying to move the bowels
Is performed by having the patient exhale and then try to inhale against a closed glottis
Is done with the patient supine and turned up slightly on his left side. This LPO position will fill the fundus with barium. Px is asked to swallow a mouthful of water through a straw. Radiologist will closely observe the esophagogastric junction under fluoroscopy
Is performed to study possible regurgitation into the esphagus from the stomach. The cardiac orifice is observe as the patient bends over and touches his or her toes. Esophageal Reflux and Hiatal Hernias are sometimes demostrated in this
Three positions or projections are considered routine for an esophagram or barium swallow
Radiographic examination of the distal esophagus, stomach and duodenum is termed an
Upper GI Series
Is a mass of undigested material that gets trapped in the stomach. This mass is usually made up of hair, certain vegetable fibers or wood products.
Are a weakening and outpouching of a portion of the mucosal wall.
Diffuse fatty inflitration of the hepatic parenchyma may be referred to as:
An enterovesical fistula is an abnormal communication btw the bowel and the
Prior to a CT colongraphy, the patient may undrgo a process of bowel cleansing termed:
The condition of intermittent cramping pain in the legs due to poor circulation is called
Which of the following terms is used to describe a fibroid tumor of the uterus?
Which of the following may be included as part of a routin preparation for a general contrast-enhanced CT examination of the abdomen and pelvis?
Instructing the pt to take nothing by mouth for 4 hrs prior to exam
1200 mL of oral contrast agent administered 90 min. prior to exam
Which of the following contrast media may be utilized during the CT evaluation of the gastrointestinal tract?
Diatrizoate meglumine (Gastrografin) Effervescent agents Iopamidol (Isovue)
What projection will demonstrate the esophagus free of superimposition of the thoracic spine and heart?
What projection of the UGI will best demonstrate the fundus and the duodenal loop?
PA Oblique (RAO Position)
Where does deglutition take place?
Hydrochloric acid and digestive enzymes are produced in the
At which level is the IR centered for a PA projection of the stomach and duodenum?
What is another word for digested food?
In which layer of the upper GI system has a clear boundary between the gut and surrounding tissue?
Which of the following pH levels is plausible for the substances in your stomach?
The function of the "cardia" is to:
Push food into the stomach via the oesophagus
To which side does the common bile duct reside, relative to the stomach?
Radiographs with the patient in the decubitus position are produced following an air-contrast barium enema examination. The radiographer fails to properly label the radiograph. To identify the right lateral decubitus image, the radiographer should see:
Air in the lateral descending colon and medial ascending colon.
During a double-contrast BE, which position would afford the best double -contrast visualization of both colic flexures?
AP or PA Erect
Which projection would best demonstrate hepatic flexure?