Flashcards in Posterior Seg Deck (58)
What is the difference between giant cell arteritis (AION) and NAION?
AION - jaw claudication, scalp tenderness, severe VA loss
What is vitreous syneresis?
liquefaction of vitreous strands
What is PVD?
Posterior vitreous detachment
What is lattice degeneration?
Peripheral retina becomes atrophic in a lattice pattern and may develop tears / breaks / holes, which may further progress to retinal detachment
What are retinal holes and tears associated with?
What is an operculated retinal hole?
piece of retina is in the vitreous, less chance of RD
What is an atrophic retinal hole?
Retinal thinning, no operculum
What is an operculum?
a prefoveal opacity
A retinal detachment is a separation of the retina between what two layers?
photoreceptor layer and RPE
What is retinoschisis?
separation of the retina between OPL and INL
When should you suspect ocular inflammation?
Decreased vision with shadows
Unilateral red eye
Poorly reactive pupils
Ocular pain is mainly associated with what nerve?
Trigeminal nerve. V1
What symptom is never associated with retinal disease?
What is retrobulbar blockage?
Patient can't see anything and neither can the doctor
What ocular condition is highly associated with MS?
What is vitritis?
white blood cells in the vitreous
Posterior uveitis is typically associated with what?
Orange pigment. Macrophages with lipofuscin and melanin granules from degenerated RPE
What is drusen?
whitish yellow deposits that indicated probably chonicity
Which is a good prognostic sign: drusen or lipofuscin?
What is To Find Small Ocular Melanoma
Margin touching ONH
What is congenital hypertrophy of RPE?
Benign, flat, pigmented lesion, distinct borders, usually mid-periphery
Happens more in females
What is the leading cause of visual loss in working-age americans?
What is the main cause of vision impairment in patients with DR?
Diabetic macular edema
What are the signs of CRVO vs CRAO?
CRVO - flame-shaped hemes, cotton wool spots, micro/macro-aneurisms
CRAO - white macula, cherry red spot at macula
What has a better visual prognosis: non-ischemic or ischemic CRVO?
What is amaurosis fugax?
loss of vision in one eye due to a temporary lack of blood flow to the retina
What medication causes the salt and pepper fundus appearance?
What medication causes multiple superficial yellow crystalline ring-like deposits at the macula?