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Flashcards in Posterior Seg Deck (58)
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1

What is the difference between giant cell arteritis (AION) and NAION?

AION - jaw claudication, scalp tenderness, severe VA loss

2

What is vitreous syneresis?

liquefaction of vitreous strands

3

What is PVD?

Posterior vitreous detachment

4

What is lattice degeneration?

Peripheral retina becomes atrophic in a lattice pattern and may develop tears / breaks / holes, which may further progress to retinal detachment

5

What are retinal holes and tears associated with?

PVD
high myopia
ocular trauma

6

What is an operculated retinal hole?

piece of retina is in the vitreous, less chance of RD

7

What is an atrophic retinal hole?

Retinal thinning, no operculum

8

What is an operculum?

a prefoveal opacity

9

A retinal detachment is a separation of the retina between what two layers?

photoreceptor layer and RPE

10

What is retinoschisis?

separation of the retina between OPL and INL

11

When should you suspect ocular inflammation?

Deep/achy pain
Decreased vision with shadows
Photosensitivity
Unilateral red eye
Poorly reactive pupils
EOM pain

12

Ocular pain is mainly associated with what nerve?

Trigeminal nerve. V1

13

What symptom is never associated with retinal disease?

pain

14

What is retrobulbar blockage?

Patient can't see anything and neither can the doctor

15

What ocular condition is highly associated with MS?

ocular neuritis

16

What is vitritis?

white blood cells in the vitreous

17

Posterior uveitis is typically associated with what?

systemic diseases

18

Lipofucsin

Orange pigment. Macrophages with lipofuscin and melanin granules from degenerated RPE

19

What is drusen?

whitish yellow deposits that indicated probably chonicity

20

Which is a good prognostic sign: drusen or lipofuscin?

drusen

21

What is To Find Small Ocular Melanoma

Thickness
Fluid
Symptoms
Orange pigment
Margin touching ONH

22

What is congenital hypertrophy of RPE?

Benign, flat, pigmented lesion, distinct borders, usually mid-periphery
Happens more in females

23

What is the leading cause of visual loss in working-age americans?

Diabetic retinopathy

24

What is the main cause of vision impairment in patients with DR?

Diabetic macular edema

25

What are the signs of CRVO vs CRAO?

CRVO - flame-shaped hemes, cotton wool spots, micro/macro-aneurisms
CRAO - white macula, cherry red spot at macula

26

What has a better visual prognosis: non-ischemic or ischemic CRVO?

Non-ischemic

27

What is amaurosis fugax?

loss of vision in one eye due to a temporary lack of blood flow to the retina

28

What medication causes the salt and pepper fundus appearance?

Phenothiazine

29

What medication causes multiple superficial yellow crystalline ring-like deposits at the macula?

Tamoxifen

30

What medication causes bull’s eye maculopathy and paracentral scotomas?

Plaquenil