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Flashcards in Practical Feedlot Nutrition Deck (35)
1

Describe differnces between domestic and export market specifications and suitable diets to achieve these

Describe domestic trade specifications

  • Hot Standard Carcass Weight (HSCW) = 160-250kg
  • Fat depth = 6-9mm@P8
  • Feeding period = 60d (heifers), = 70d (steers) up to 90d
  • Entry LW = 220-300kg
  • Entry age = 6-12 months

2

Describe differences between domestic and export market specifications and suitable diets to achieve these

Describe domestic trade DIET specifications

  • High ME
    -low cost high ME source (wheat, triticale, barley)
  • Low cost protein source
    -but may need to consider UDP
  • In Australia, need cheap, high quality roughage
    -E.g. maize silage (contains grain)
    -avoid high carotene diets
    -Green & yellow coloured plants needed for vitamin A synthesis but taints meat and discolours fat
    -Better to add vitamin A to diet

3

Describe differences between domestic and export market specifications and suitable diets to achieve these

Describe export trade specifications

  • HSCW = 280-390kg
  • Fat depth = 16-20mm@P8
  • Sex = steers
  • Feeding period = 120-150d, over 200d
  • Entry LW = 300-500kg
  • Entry age = 16-20 months

4

Describe differences between domestic and export market specifications and suitable diets to achieve these

Describe export trade DIET specifications

  • In Japan, slow growth rate of 1 kg/d over 300-500d
    -up to 75% concentrate
    -cattle fed ad lib

5

Describe differences between domestic and export market specifications and suitable diets to achieve these

Preparing for feedlot entry
-what diet should be fed?
-how much kg ADG is preferable?

  • feeding high roughage (forage) diet
    -common to start with 20% concentrate
    -Build up to 40% concentrate
  • typically obtain approximately 1kg ADG

6

Describe differences between domestic and export market specifications and suitable diets to achieve these

What do introductory feedlot diets aim to achieve?
What % concentrate and what % roughage should be fed?

  • Aims to adjust rumen to high grain
    -introduce to cereal grain over 3 weeks
    -lupins can be used to improve daily gain in introductory phase
  • expect low consumption in the first week
  • Common to start with 20% concentrate
  • can start with 50% for young cattle

7

Describe differences between domestic and export market specifications and suitable diets to achieve these

What do feedlot finishing diets consist of?

  • feeding cattle to an endpoint suitable for slaughter
  • feed a high concentrate ration to increase ration energy density
    -increases rate of gain, decreases cost of gain
    -promotes fattening to achieve desired quality grade
    -typical finishing ration is
    -90-95% concentrate, 5-10% roughage

8

List ways in which protein deposition can be altered

How can you control growth through nutrition?

  • Repartitioning agents
    -Sex hormones/analogues
    -Growth hormones (GH)
    -Growth promoting medications (Bacitracin (BMD))
    -agonists (Ractopamine & ZH) Muscle promotants
  • MGA - melengestrol acetate
    -Progestogen-like compound that inhibits oestrus in heifers
    -Promote muscle growth
    -Quiet cattle gain more rapidly and efficiently
  • For lean production, protein supply must be in balance with energy
  • Compensatory growth effects
  • Nutritional phasing

9

Nutrients

Energy?

maximised to provide as much as NEg as possible

-11 + MJME/kg DM

10

Nutrients

Protein?

typically fed at 12-14% of ration DM

11

Nutrients

Minerals?

  • Ca is usually deficient in typical feedstuffs
    -Added at 1% diet
    -Grains are high in phosphorus but low in calcium (Ca:P ratio)
  • Sulphur sometimes added (microbes)
  • Trace minerals are usually mixed in ration
    -Zinc & cobalt
  • Salt is usually mixed in ration at 0.2% of diet (Sodium)
  • Urea at 1% of diet (N source)

12

Nutrients

Vitamins?

  • Only major concern is Vit. A, maybe D
  • vit. E
  • thiamin

13

Feedstuffs

Energy concentrates?

• Cereal grains

• Fat (no more than 7%)

• By products
-E.g. oilseed meal, cotton seed meal

14

Feedstuffs

Protein concentrates?

• Oilseed meals

• NPN

• By products
-E.g. Distillers and brewers grains

15

Roughages

?

• Corn or sorghum silage

• additional benefit: contains additional grain

• Lucerne hay

• additional benefit: contains protein

• Grass hay

• Straw

16

What roughage types should be fed on high grain (90%) diets?

• Coarse roughage preferred

• Often low quality

• Aims to maintain rumen function

• Keep rumen fill (avoid acidosis and ulcers)

17

What roughage types should be fed on low grain (<50%) diets?

• Quality critical (e.g. maize silage)

18

Describe common grain processing methods

Describe particle size reduction?

• grinding

• dry rolling

• Aim is to increase starch access

• Can be soaked prior (tempering)

19

Describe common grain processing methods

Describe heat processes?

roasting, popping, micronising

20

Describe common grain processing methods

Describe moisture processes?

High-moisture grain

• Harvested early and ensiled (silage)

• Steam rolling and flaking

• Extrusion

• Exploding

• Feed in high tensile containers subjected to high pressure steam

• Gelatinisation

• Breaks down starch structure

• dissolve in water

• increase digestion

21

Describe the major health issues related to nutrition in feedlots and how these can be minimised

What are the issues with feeding starch to a ruminant?

  • pH drops as starch intake increases
  • eat too much, pH falls quickly (<5.6)
  • creates unstable intake pattern
  • goal of nutritional management is to stabilise intake
  • challenge is stable intake for individuals when managing pens

22

Describe the major health issues related to nutrition in feedlots and how these can be minimised

Feeding starch: Nutritional management

how can we adapt cattle to a high starch diet?

• Start at 50-55% grain

• Increase grain by 10% every 5 days

• Takes about 20 days to get to 90-95% grain

23

Describe the major health issues related to nutrition in feedlots and how these can be minimised

Feeding starch: Nutritional management

What are the goals of bunk management?

Goals:

 1. Consistent intake and pattern of intake

2. Eliminate acidosis

3. Manage gain and feed efficiency

24

Describe the major health issues related to nutrition in feedlots and how these can be minimised

Feeding starch: Nutritional management

What are the challenges of bunk management?

• 1. How much are they willing to eat?

• 2. How much remains from last delivery?

• 3. How much do you change amount each day?

• 4. What is their feeding behaviour?

25

Describe the major health issues related to nutrition in feedlots and how these can be minimised

Feeding starch: Nutritional management

What are the responsibilities of the employee managing a bunk?

• 1. correctly mix ration

• 2. deliver correct amount

• 3. deliver at the same time each day
• 4. distribute evenly in the bunk

26

What are the two systems of bunk management?

  • continuous feed
  • clean bunk

27

Describe continous feed bunk management

• Always feed in the bunk

• Theoretically no limit on performance

• Less control – harder to manage

• Feed waste needs to be managed

• Big responsibility on bunk reader

28

Describe clean bunk management

Empty bunk at same time each day

• Goal is to maintain or increase consumption

• Controls intake better

• Reduces feed waste

• Less responsibility for bunk reader

29

Describe the various additives that can be included in feedlot diets

What are ionophores?

  • Selective antibiotics that alter rumen microbial populations and thus fermentation patterns
  • Select against grampositive bacteria and protozoa

30

Describe the various additives that can be included in feedlot diets

What are ionophores used for?

Increases energetic efficiency by changing VFA profile to greater propionate:acetate ratio and reducing methane

More propionate for glucose production

Improves feed efficiency by increasing ADG and/or decreasing feed intake

Protein sparing effect

Less protein degradation by microbes, more feed protein available to ruminant (bypass)

Control nutritional disorders including coccidiosis, acidosis, and bloat

31

Describe the various additives that can be included in feedlot diets

Name some examples of ionophores?

Rumensin (sodium monensin)

Bovatec

32

Describe the various additives that can be included in feedlot diets

What are feed-grade antibiotics used for?

reduce incidence of subclinical bacterial infections

• digestive and respiratory tracts

stimulate appetite

• These 2 effects are particularly valuable in diets for newly received calves

nutrient sparing effects

control acidosis when feeding high levels of grain

33

Describe the various additives that can be included in feedlot diets

What are some examples of feed-grade antibiotics?

Virginiamycin (Eskalin)

-Highly regulated
-Only issued under tight veterinary directive
-Section 4 drug
-Used for set periods of time in set quantities

34

Describe the various additives that can be included in feedlot diets

 

  • Ionophores
  • Feed-grade antibiotics
  • Buffers
  • Probiotics or Direct Fed Microbials (DFM)
  • Antifungals (eg propionic acid)
  • Antioxidants (eg ethoxyquin)
  • Pellet binders (eg bentonites)
  • Feed flavours?

35

Describe the various additives that can be included in feedlot diets

What are buffers used for?

• control rumen pH to reduce acidosis on high grain rations 

• very common in dairy rations, infrequently used in feedlot rations Eg. Sodium bicarbonate