Practice Test Questions (part 2) Flashcards Preview

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1

What type of nucleus does a ganglion cell have?

round and EUCHROMATIC nucleus

2

What type of nucleus does a orthochromatic normoblast have?

small, pykontic (very condensed) dark and heterchromatic

3

Which has more capillaries: loose connective tissue or dense regular connective tissue?

Loose connective tissue

4

Which structures are primarily microtubules?

cilia, axoneme, basal bodies, flagellum of sperm

5

What structures are primarily microfilaments?

microvilli, striated border, brush border, stereocilia

6

What is appositional growth?

The secretion of new cartilage matrix along the surface of a pre-existing cartilage.

Occurs by ostoeoblasts from the periosteum

7

What is interstitial growth?

The process of chondrocyte division, hypertrophy, osteoblast deposition and osteoclast resorption restricted to the end of bones.

Primarily due to chondrocyte division

8

What is intracartilaginous growth?

laying down a layer of cartrilage and then having osteoblasts deposit bone on pieces of calcified cartilage while osteoclasts resorb the calcified cartilage to give new space

9

The primary defect in osteoarthritis is the degeneration of...?

the articular cartilage.

10

Arrange the following steps in order ofor endochondral ossification:

a) formation of a cartilage model
b) loss of chondrocytes in the epiphyseal plate
c) loss of osteocytes in the epiphyseal plate
d) invasion of a periosteal bud
e) formation a secondary ossification center

a) formation of a cartilage mode
d) invasion of a periosteal budl
e) formation a secondary ossification center
b) loss of chondrocytes in the epiphyseal plate

The following does not occur in endochondral ossification:
c) loss of osteocytes in the epiphyseal plate

11

What is not present in an adult tooth, endothelial cells or ameloblasts?

Ameloblasts [grows enamel, only in kids]

12

In a cross section, how can a cardiac muscle best be differentiated from smooth muscle?

A cardiac muscle has larger, more variable sized fibers.

13

What is a primary lysosome?

newly formed, virgin lysosome

14

What is secondary lysosome?

Vesicles formed after fusion of the primary lysosome with the membrane bound material to be destroyed.

15

Can a satellite cell replicate?

Yes

16

Can an osteoblast replicate?

No

17

Can an endothelial cell replicate?

Yes

18

Can a fibroblast replicate?

Yes

19

Can a chondrocyte replicate?

Yes

20

What three cell types have very tightly coiled chromatin? What does this indicate about the cell?

Adipose, Mucous, and Goblet cells. Having very tightly coiled chromatin means they are inactive, or heterochromatic.

21

What cell secretes antibodies? What is it derived from? What type of cytoplasm and nucleus does it have?

Plasma cells secrete antibodies. They are derived from B-Lymphocytes. They have a basophilic cytoplasm with a small round eccentric nucleus.

22

What tissue can grow appositionally and interstitally?

only cartilage

23

Where do osteoblasts differentiate from stem cells?

Volkmann's canals, periosteum, marrow cavity, endosteum. Anywhere you can find osteoblasts.

24

What large cell has a lobated, polyploid nucleus that can be found in bone marrow?

Megakaryocyte

25

From what part of the germ layer do odontoblasts arise from?

neural crest cells

26

From what part of the germ layer do Schwann cells arise from?

neural crest cells

27

From what part of the germ layer do parasympathetic ganglion cells arise from?

neural crest cells

28

From what part of the germ layer do mesenchymal cells arise from?

neural crest cells

29

The axon hillock prevents ______ from entering the axon.

Ribosomes

30

Severing the dorsal roots will result in damage to neurons whose cell bodies are located in the...?

spinal ganglia

31

Severing the spinal cord will result in damage to neurons whose cell bodies are located in the...?

spinal ganglia and gray matter

32

In peripheral nerves, what are the layers starting from the axon and going outward?

Axon --> myelin --> schwan cell nucleus/cytoplasm--> basal lamina--> endoneurim (fibroblast, CT)

33

What does the serous gland of the Pancreas secrete?

Digestive enzymes like trypsinogens, chymotrypsinogen, amylase, lipase, deoxyribonuclease in inactive proenzyme form.

34

What do the islets of the Pancreas secrete?

Beta cells - insulin (70%)
alpha cells - glucagon (20%)
delta cells - somatostatin
PP cell - pancreatic polypeptide

35

What type of capillaries are in the islets of langerhans?

fenestrated capillaries

36

From which germ layer are the bones of the vertebral column from?

mesoderm

37

From which germ layer are the bones of the cranial vault from?

ectoderm

38

From which germ layer are the epithelial lining of the stomach from?

endoderm

39

From which germ layer are the smooth muscle of the aorta from?

Mesoderm

40

From which germ layer are leukocytes and erythrocytes from?

Mesoderm

41

Where do developing erythroblasts take place?

bone marrow

42

Where do developing leukocytes take place?

in the blood

43

Which cell is normally present in a healthy individual's blood sample? why?

a) plasma cell
b) eosinophilic metamyelocyte
c) neutrophilic band

c) Neutrophilic band

Because there is always a low level present of neutrophils in the blood, even when the patient is healthy.

44

What do smooth muscle fibers not have that skeletal and cardiac muscle fibers do?

T-tubules, terminal cisternae, multinucleated cells, sarcomeres, z-lines

45

What are some characteristic features of smooth muscle fibers?

single nucleus per cell, intermediate filaments, pinocytotic vesicles, and cigar shaped nucleus

46

Where are purkinje fibers located?

in the endocardium of the heart

47

Describe purkinje fibers.

Located in the endocardium of the heart, purkinje fibers are large cells with abundant glycogen stores.

48

Hepatocytes secrete conjugated bilirubin directly into what?

bile canaliculi.

49

Arterioles in the liver portal triad dump into what?

liver sinusoids

50

What do dense regular connective tissue and fibrocartilage have in common?

Both have Type I collagen fiber bundles

51

What type of cytoplasm and nucleus does an orthochromatophilic normoblast have?

an acidophilic cytoplasm and a round, pyknotic nucleus

52

What is the function of a muscle spindle? What neuron does it attach to?

Function - sensory receptor for muscle
Neuron attachment - Dorsal root ganglion.

53

Do sympathetic ganglion attach to skeletal muscle?

No

54

What do sympathetic ganglion attach to?

Cardiac muscle, Smooth muscle and Glands

55

What is a sinusoid?

A type of capillary