Pre-conception Nutrition Flashcards Preview

LPN > Pre-conception Nutrition > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pre-conception Nutrition Deck (16)
Loading flashcards...
1
Q

Infertility

A

15-17% of couples are infertile but 40% will conceive within 3 years w/o technology
Healthy couples: 20-25% chance of conception within a given menstrual cycle

2
Q

Miscarriage

A

Loss of conceptus in first 20 weeks of pregnancy

  • defect in fetus
  • maternal infection
  • structural abnormalities of uterus
  • endocrine of immunological disturbances
3
Q

Subfertility

A

Reduced level of fertility characterised by unusually long time for conception- 18% of couples

  • having multiple miscarriages
  • sperm abnormalities
  • infrequent ovulation
4
Q

Menstrual cycle

A

Follicular phase

  • follicle growth and maturation
  • main hormones GnRH, FSH, oestrogen and progesterone

Luteal phase

  • after ovulation
  • formation of corpus luteum
  • decreased oestrogen and progesterone stimulate menstrual flow
  • prostaglandins and cramps
5
Q

Women’s reproductive system

A

Forms during first months after conception. Pre conception exposure can affect this growth- eg. Excessive alcohol, pain fumes and drug use
Continues to grow and develop through puberty
Capacity for reproduction establishes during puberty when hormonal changes stimulate maturation of reproductive system
Chromosomes in ova may be damaged by oxidation, radioactive particle exposure, aging
Women older than 35 more likely to have chromosomal damage

6
Q

Hormonal effects during the menstrual cycle

A

Gonadotropin releasing hormone stimulates pituitary gland to release follicle stimulating hormone and lutenizing hormone

FSH stimulates maturation of ovum and sperm

Lutenizing hormone stimulate secretion of oestrogen, progesterone and testosterone

Oestrogen stimulates release of GnRH in follicular phase and follicle growth and maturation. Also stimulates vascularity and storage of glycogen and other nutrients in uterus

Progesterone prepares uterus for fertiliser ovum, increases vascularity of endometrium and stimulates cell division of fertilised ova

7
Q

Ovary

A

One of a pair of primary reproductive organs in which oocytes (immature eggs) form and mature, produces hormones (estrogens and progesterone), which stimulate maturation of oocytes, formation of corpus luteum (a glandular structure) and preparation of the uterine lining for pregnancy.

8
Q

Oviduct

A

One of a pair of cilliated channels through which oocytes are conducted from an ovary to the uterus; usual site of fertilisation

9
Q

Uterus

A

Chamber in which embryo develops; its narrowed down portion (the cervix) secretes mucus that helps sperm move into uterus and that bars many bacteria

10
Q

Myometrium

A

Thick muscle layers of uterus that stretch enormously during pregnancy

11
Q

Endometrium

A

Inner lining of uterus, site of implantation of blastocyst (early embryonic stage) becomes thickened, nutrient packed and highly vascularised tissue during a pregnancy; gives rise to maternal portion of placenta, an organ that metabolically supports embryonic and feral development

12
Q

Men and the reproductive system

A

Spent production begins during puberty, declines after 35 but continues into old age
Interactions among hypothalamus, pituitary gland and testes
Androgens- testosterone
Sperm stored in the epididymis and released in semen. Takes approx 72-90 days to mature- eg if trying to conceive, may not be optimal for another 2-3 months

13
Q

Sources of disruption in fertility

A
Adverse nutritional exposure 
Contraceptive use
Severe stress 
Infection 
Tubal damage or other structural damage 
Chromosomal damage
14
Q

Altered fertility: males & females

A
Weight loss > 10-15% of normal weight 
Inadequate antioxidant status (selenium, vit C and E) 
Excessive fat, high central 
Extreme exercise 
High alcohol intake 
Endocrine disorders (hypothyroidism, cushings disease) 
Structural abnormalities of reproductive tracts 
Coeliac disease
Chromosomal abnormalities 
Oxidative stress 
Severe psychological stress 
Infection (STI) 
Diabetes, cancer other disorders 
Some medications
15
Q

Altered fertility: females

A
Oral contraception in last two months 
Anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa 
Vegan diet
Age >35 
Metabolic syndrome 
Pelvic inflam disease (PID) 
Endometriosis
Polycystic ovary syndrome 
Poor iron stores
16
Q

Altered fertility: males

A
Inadequate zinc status 
Heavy metal exposure (lead, mercury, cadmium, manganese) 
Halogen (in pesticides) and glycol (in anti freeze) exposure 
Estrogen exposure (in DDT, PCBs) 
Sperm defects (quality and motility) 
Excessive heat to testes 
Steroid abuse 
High intake of soy foods