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Flashcards in Pre Lab sauerland Deck (16)
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Where are most skull fractures?

at the pterion (meeting point of 4 bones. Frontal, parietal, temporal, and sphenoid)


What will a fracture through the pterion result in?

tearing of the middle meningeal artery and epidural hematoma


What happens when you have an epidural hematoma?

herniation of temporal lobe
compression of CN 3
pupil dilation and CN 3 palsy
herniation of cerebellar tonsil
compression of corticospinal and ass. pathways resulting in contralateral hemiparesis,
deep tendon hypereflexia and babinski sign.
shift of brainstem to opp. side
compression of post. cerebral artery
shift of normal midline structures.


What does arterial blood build up in epidural hematomas?

between bony skull and dura mater


What is the usual shape of the epidural hematoma?

lentiform or lenticular


What is an epidural hematoma potentially deadly?

because of compression of brain and increase in intracranial pressure
(15-20% of pnts die)


What is the diagnostic hallmark of epidural hematoma?

lucid interval
(talk and die syndrome)
Must treat them immediately during their lucid interval and you may be able to save them with surgery


is the subdural space (between the dura and arachnoid) a potential space or a real space?



What is this:
Blood occurs quickly in subdural space
Occurs mostly in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI)
Often associated with other injuries
Often associated with cerebral edema
Poor outcome (50% mortality rate) and sequelae
Surgery is essential

acute subdural hematoma (Acute SDH)


What is this:
Blood appears slowly in subdural space
Long time course
Patients often do not remember an injury
Careful observation or slow drainage
Outcome is relatively good

Chronic subdural hematoma (Chronic SDH)


what happens if you get punched in the eye?

blow out of fracture of the floor of the orbit into your maxillary sinus


Hemorrhage into the maxillary sinus and/or displacement of orbital structures into the maxillary sinus may cause what?

obstruction, infection, and even displacement of maxillary teeth.


What is the most dangerous glaucoma?

getting an angle-closure
(severe pain, DONT WANT to dilate their pupil, lose vision)

*** iris closes drainage angle and obstructs outflow of aqueous)


What is this:
rare; pigment deposited from iris clogs the draining angles and prevents aqueous humor from leaving the eye.

pigmentary glaucoma


What is this:

Most common cause of blindness. At age of 80, about 10% of the population is affected.

Progressive optic nerve damage:
Peripheral visual field loss, followed by loss of central vision. Blindness.



What are all the things you will see in papilledema?

edema of optic disc
venous engorgement
engorged tortous retinal veins
hyperemic and swollen optic disc
retinal hemorrhages around the disc