Flashcards in Pain Correlates-Falkenberg TBL Deck (48)
Where do we find nociceptors?
skin, muscle, joints and visceral tissues
How do you get neuropathic pain?
primary lesion or dysfunction in the nervous system,
i.e diabetic neuropathy
What is sympathetic pain or CRPS?
Pain signals from the sympathetic nervous system become constant and severe, even though there is no obvious cause of pain. The mechanism by which this happens is complex and not fully understood.
What kind of pain is this:
relating to or denoting any disease or condition that arises spontaneously or for which the cause is unknown.
What makes the nervous system plastic?
change of neurotransmitter
change of phenotype
What are first line analgesic drugs?
What are 2nd line or drugs to use when pain is out of control drugs?
opoids (sustained release or immediate release)
What drugs do use for refractory pain (pain that persists longer than usual and isnt responding to the usual meds)?
spinal/epidural opoids (clonidine, local anesthetic)
selective nerve blocks
What are the major classes of analgesics?
Local anesthetics, lidocaine
What are examples of NSAIDS?
ibuprofen, naproxen, ketoprofen, COX-2 inhibitor
What is an example of an P-aminophenol?
What are examples of opiates?
morphine, oxycodone, fentanyl
What is an excellent anesthetic?
What is a common calcium channel blocker?
what are these:
Calcium channel blockers- ziconotide
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors
Multi-receptor drugs- Tapentadol (NE)
What drugs target the cortex for pain relief?
anxiolytics, hypnotics, opoids, psychostimulants, anticonvulsants
What drugs target the thalamus for pain relief?
What drugs target the spinal cord?
Opoids, adrenergicagonists, SSRIs.
Where do you put a neural blockade?
spinal cord baby!
What can illicit pain relief at the pain receptors?
What does P.O stand for?
What does P.R stand for?
What does Sub. Q stand for?
How do you give someone a transmucosal administration of a drug?
via a sublingual lollipop
Why should you treat pain?
pulmonary function, CV function, mobility
The majority of drugs are (blank) rather than local. Why are local drugs so nice?
Because they have less systemic effects so less side effects
What is fentanyl?
100 X more potent than morphine (used in chronic pain patients)
What is preemptive analgesia?
prevent firing of pain nerves prior to surgery to increase recovery time and decrease risk of chronic pain.
(hit them with that multimodality, and do it before, during and after to prevent wind up)
What is additive and synergistic analgesia?
treating multiple types of receptors (multimodality) will have an additive affect and result in better pain relief