Flashcards in pre term infant Deck (33)
fluid collection caused by pressure of presenting part of scalp against dilating cervix
day 2-5 common rash babies get
definition of pre term?
polyhydramnios, cervical incompitence, drugs, alcohol, smoking, multiple pregnancy, placental abruption, infection, pneumonia, appendicitis, low BMI, low socioeconomic status
whats the difference?
get cold faster, don't breathe effectively, fragile lungs, fewer reserves. pulse oximetry often indicated
during cord clamping, pause for at least a minute to allow placental transfusion
lugs are more fragile
it is important to keep baby warm. heat them in plastic bag under heater
why is thermal regulation ineffective in pre term?
low BMR, minimal muscular activity, subcutaneous fat insulation negligible. High surface area to mass ratio
increased risk of nutritional compromise
limited nutrient reserves, immature metabolic pathways, increased nutrient demands
what is gestational correction?
adjusts plot of measurement to account for number of weeks a baby was born early
when should this be continued until?
1 year for infants born 32-36 weeks
2 years for infants born less than 32 weeks
neonatal sepsis. can be early (mainly due to bacteria acquired before and during delivery) or late onset - acquired after delivery (nosocomial or community sources)
causitive organisms of neonatal sepsis?
CONS, SA, strep pneumonaie, strep pyogenes, klebsiella, salmonella, pseudomonas, e coli
In In In
incubators increase infection
hyaline membrane disease. surfactant deficiency and structural immaturity - Respiratory Distress syndrome
2y pathology: alveolar damage, inflammation, formation of exudate from leaky capillaries
clinical features of RDS?
tachypnoea, grunting, intercostal recessions, nasal flaring, cyanosis
gets worse over?
minutes to hours
gradual worsening 2-4 days to..... then gradual improvement
management: maternal steroid and surfactant
premature infants at risk of patent ductus arteriosus
duct does not respond to close signals
oxygen requirements are high. exacerbates RDS. symptoms of CHF
form of inter cranial haemorrhage that occurs in pre term infants. begins with bleeding into the germinal matrix
risk factors? 2
prematurity and RDS
in 80% of cases, GMH leads to an ?
most IVH occur on ?
first day of life
preventative measures for IVH
antenatal steroids and prompt resus
most common neonatal surgical emergency?
widespread necrosis in small and large intestine?
there is a high incidence in?
pre term infants
usually recovering from RDS, lethargy and gastric residuals, bloody stool, temp instability, apnea and bradycardia
can get retinopathy of prematurity 6-8 weeks after delivery
antenatal steroids and surfactant replacement has contributed to improved pre term care