Prelim #2 Flashcards Preview

BIOEE 1610 > Prelim #2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Prelim #2 Deck (93)
Loading flashcards...
1

human development index

a summary measurement of average achievement in key dimensions of human development: a long and healthy life, being knowledgeable and have a decent standard of living

2

what kind of population growth is being exhibited by the world's human population?

greater than exponential, increasing r

3

pre agricultural period

-100,000 years
-hunters and gatherers
-ten of thousands of years for population to double
-population 5-10 million at end

4

agricultural period

-began 10,000 years ago
-domestication of plants and animals
-doubling time ~1,000 years
-500+ million at end of period

5

industrial period

-~200 years ago
-current period
-advances: technology, fossil fuels, sanitation, medicine
-death rates decline
-doubling time ~50 years

6

life expectancy: rich vs poor countries

-going up worldwide
-higher in rich countries
-influenced by wealth/development, nutrition, healthcare, sanitation

7

cause of death in rich vs poor countries

rich: chronic illness: heart attack, stroke, cancer
poor: infectious disease, pneumonia, HIV/AIDS, malnutrition, diarrheal disease

8

infant mortality rate in rich vs poor countries

poor countries' have a rate that is 13 times higher than rich countries

9

fecundity

-potential for reproduction of an organism
-differs between developed and less developed nations
-number of births in US is 2 compared to 7 in Niger

10

people in poorer nations...reproduce....and .....

-reproduce more and sooner
-birth rates lower in richer countries

11

demographic transition model: stage 1

-preindustrial/pretransition
-before economic development
-death rate high
-birth rate high

12

demographic transition model: stage 2

-transitional
-mortality transition
-death rate decreases
-birth rate stays high
-rapid population growth

13

demographic transition model: stage 3

-industrial
-fertility transition
-death rate stays low
-birth rate decreases
-population growth slows

14

demographic transition model: stage 4

-post-industrial
-stability transition
-low birth and death rate
-birth and death rates equal
-zero population growth

15

demographic transition model: Niger vs. Netherlands

-niger is in stage 2, approaching stage 3
-netherlands is in stage 3, approaching stage 4

16

demographic transition model: 5th stage?

-declining birth rate
-declining death rate (not as much as birth rate)
-declining total population

17

how to help a starving nation?

-not food, that just increases K slightly, does not decrease population growth rate
-education

18

reduction of birth rate seen with

-economic development
-educational opportunities for women
-empowerment of women

19

IPAT equation

I=P*A*T
I=environmental impact
P=population size, growth, distribution
A=affluence (individual consumption)
T=technology (energy using items)

20

Exploitation

+/-
predation, herbivory, parasitism

21

competition

-/-
2 plants next to each other (limited light)
a cheetah and a lion fighting over carcass

22

mutualism

+/+
-pollination, cleaner fish, seed dispersal
-association between individuals of 2 species in which each parter benefits from the association
-benefits: fitness, population growth, across the ecosystem overall

23

neutralism

0/0
dog and cat sniff each other and then walk on

24

commensalism

+/0
phoresy (biological taxi service, mites use birds for transportation)

25

ammensalism

-/0
elephants or cows stepping on plants

26

how are interactions asymmetric?

positive can be more extreme for one organism, negative can be extreme negative (death for one dinner for other)

27

place interspecific interactions into definition of hierarchical framework for ecology

population ecology: emphasis on relationships with interacting species

28

obligate mutualism

fundamental for survival

29

facultative mutualism

not necessary to survive, but it benefits both to remain together

30

3-way obligate symbiotic example

cellulase producing bacteria live in gut protist which lives in termite, bacteria and protist get place to live, termite is able to digest food

31

defensive mutualisms

-mostly facultative
-species receive food/shelter from partners in return for defending predators against herbivores, predators, or parasites
ex: aphids

32

mutualism: by-product

not costly, a benefit that comes from the "regular" activities of the partner
ex: aphid excrement drunk by ants, mixed species flocks

33

mutualism: investment

costly product or service for the partner, typically not needed for self
ex: nectar produced by plants, nitrogen fixed by rhyzobia

34

mutualism: purloin

costly product taken/stolen from partner
ex: plant pollen fed to bee larvae, blood taken by oxpeckers

35

conditionality

how environmental conditions impact the strength and direction of interaction outcomes

36

conditionality is common when

-interaction is facultative
-interaction is indirect (has multiple partners
-density/spatial distance of partner matters

37

exploitative interactions: low lethality, high intimacy

parasites, flea, common cold, vampire bat

38

exploitative interactions: low lethality, low intimacy

herbivores, deer

39

exploitative interactions: high lethality, low intimacy

predators, trout (eats minnows)

40

exploitative interactions: high lethality, high intimacy

parasitoids: wasp (lays eggs inside caterpillar and eggs eat it from inside out)

41

how do animals defend against predators?

-color matching (crypts, camouflage, nocturnally, mimicry)
-toxicity (aposematism, venoms)
-behavior (running away, hiding, aggregation, vigilance)
-physical armament (turtle shell)
-size refuge

42

how do plants defend against herbivores?

-toxicity/chemical defense
-physical armament (spines, hairs, bark, thorns)
-phenological escape
-bodyguards
-behavior (moving away_
-color matching (crypsis)
-plants can't run away the same way animals do

43

why is nicotine inducible?

costs are important: may be energetically or ecologically costly

44

plant defense hypothesis

plant produces chemicals to ward off herbivores but lets in pollinators

45

parasitoid

-insect that lays one or a few eggs on or in a host organism, which the resulting larvae remain with, consume, and kill in the process
-functionally equivalent to a predator

46

parasites

a relationship in which an organism lives on or in the tissue of its hosts, often reducing the fitness of the host , but not generally killing it

47

microparasite characteristics

microscopic, includes bacteria, viruses, protozoans, some fungi, numerous per host, short generation time, multiply directly in host, many intracellular, often induce immunity to reinfection, moderate to high ability to regulate host population

48

macroparasite characteristics

relatively large, include parasitic worms, ticks, fleas, some fungi, low to intermediate densities per host, relatively long generation time, grow but do not multiply within host; persist by continual reinfection, live in body cavities or on body, induce short-term immune response, low ability to regulate host population

49

ectoparasite advantages/disadvantages

lives outside organism
-advantages: ease of dispersal and safer from host's immune system
-disadvantages: vulnerability to natural enemies, exposure to external environment, feeding more difficult

50

endoparasite
advantages/disadvantages

lives inside organism
-advantages: ease of feeding, protected from external environment, safer from enemies
-disadvantages: vulnerability to host's immune system, dispersal difficult

51

what does disease spread depend on?

population density, transmission rate, infectious period

52

what is R0?

basic reproductive rate, the number on average, of susceptible individuals that each host infects
R0=# susceptible individuals*transmission rate*Infectious period

53

if R0=1?

each host infects one new host and the disease prevalence remains constant (replacement level)

54

if R0>1

each host infects more than one new host and the disease prevalence is increasing

55

if R0<1

each host infects less than one new host and the disease prevalence is decreasing

56

What does vaccination do to R0?

decreases the number of susceptible individuals so decreases R0

57

what else affects R0?

hand washing, minimizing contact with sick, rest and recovery, medicine, developing immunity to a disease, behavioral avoidance of sick individuals, behavior changes to minimize contact with a vector, changes in populations of intermediate vectors, environmental conditions (stress could increase disease prevalence)

58

exploitative/resource/scramble competition

competition between individuals by reducing the availability of shared resources

59

interference/contest competition

direct competition between individuals for scarce resources by one impeding or denying access to the resource by another

60

intraspecific

occurs among individuals of the same species

61

interspecific

occurs between individuals of different species

62

competitive exclusion

when 2 species are very similar, they may not be able to coexist because competition is so strong. one species may consume all the resources leaving little for the other

63

when one species is a better competitor, the other should go locally extinct. in the case of the gerbils, the 2 species coexist. why?

-time has been insufficient to allow exclusion
-the environment is temporally variable
-the environment has spatial variation
-there is immigration
-there are multiple resources

64

niche concept

the range of environmental conditions and resources with which individuals of a species survive, grow, and reproduce

65

fundamental niche

the full hyper volume or range of environmental factors permitting a species to survive and reproduce (think abiotic)

66

realized niche

the conditions under which an organism actually exists, after limitations by factors such as competition, disease and predators (think biotic)

67

which is smaller, fundamental niche or realized niche?

realized niche is typically smaller and can be smaller on numerous n dimensions

68

niche as an n-dimensional hypervolume

concept of the niche is based on a species tolerance and use of a series of n environmental factors and resources.
can define multiple (n) biotic and abiotic resource axes, each with a certain frequency distribution

69

giving up density

used with animals that have diminishing returns with foraging
quit when the costs=benefits

70

evolutionary stable strategies

behavioral strategy that is adopted by a population that cannot be invaded by another strategy
-all members of a population adopt the strategy
-no other strategy will yield a greater benefit to individuals over the long term

71

assemblage

a taxonomically related group that occurs in a geographical area

72

guild

a group of organisms that utilize similar resources in a similar way (seed eating vs insect eating birds)

73

community

a group of interacting species that occur together

74

community ecology

the study of two or more species, their interactions and consequences for dynamics, persistence, relative abundance of species and diversity

75

community structure

static properties such as species richness, relative abundance, and distribution

76

community function

dynamic properties that affect the flow of energy and nutrients (primary production, species interactions, decomposition)

77

super-organism view

community members tightly bound and integrated, due in part to shared evolutionary history (Clements)--> interdependent model

78

individualistic view

species are distributed independently of others, interactions are generalized or replaceable (Gleason)--> independent model

79

ecotones

-regions of rapid replacement of species along an environmental gradient
-represent zones of transition between discrete communities

80

species richness

number of species present

81

evenness

degree of similarity (equality) in relative abidance of different species

82

alpha diversity

local diversity within a habitat, # of species within habitat

83

beta diversity

among-habitat diversity, measured as species turnover between habitats
-calculated as gamma/alpha diversity

84

gamma diversity

number of species in all habitats within a region (# of species across all habitats)

85

bottom-up controls

nutrients/energy (primary producers) limit the food chain

86

top-down controls

predators influence lower levels

87

trophic cascade

influence of predators at top of food chain flows downward among multiple trophic levels

88

what happens when predators eat competitive dominants first?

as predation intensity increases, prey diversity increases up until the apex when diversity decreases(at a certain point if there are too many predators everyone dies)

89

what happens when predators eat competitive subordinates first?

as predation intensity increases, prey diversity decreases

90

dominant species

a strongly interacting species that has high biomass in a community

91

keystone species

a strongly interacting species whose impact on the community is large and disproportionately great relative to biomass

92

ecosystem engineers

organisms that directly or indirectly influence the availability of resources to other species by creating, modifying, and maintaining habitat structure (beavers, termites)

93

community importance

change in community structure that results from removing that species