Flashcards in Preludes, Book 1, No. 2 Voiles Deck (105)
What was the first musical era?
The Middle Ages also known as the Medieval period
What organization took the lead in develping a new notational system?
The Catholic Church
Why did the Catholic Church want to develop a new notational system?
So they could standardize music across the far-flung Holy Roman Empire
What movement caused the power of the Church to wane?
When was the Renaissance Period?
1400 to 1600
When is the end of the Baroque era placed?
At around 1750
What happened in the year 1750?
The noted composer Johann Sebastian Bach died marking the end of the Baroque Period
What was the era after the Classical era?
The Romantic period
What does the word Baroque mean?
Misshapen or distorted
When did the modern era begin?
At the start of the 20th centruy
What were the two styles that composers argued over at the start of the Baroque period?
Antique style and Modern style
The trend of people demanding old favorites lead to what term?
What does classical music with a lower case c refer to?
Art music from any era
Whose music is characterized as post-Romantic?
Gustav Mahler, Richard Strauuss, Ralph Vaughan Williams and Sergei Rachmaninoff
What is the rich array of timbres in post-Romantic music referred to as?
What European born conductor was conductor of the Philadelphia Orchestra?
Leoplod Stokowski (1882-1977)
Americans tended to hire orchestra coductors from what region?
When was Peabody founded and where?
1857 in Baltimore
What music school located in Boston was established in 1867?
Boston's New England Conservvatory
When did Juilliard School open its doors and where?
In New YOrk in 1905 as the Institute of Musical Artt
What new instruments were produced in the 19th century?
The saxophone, piccolo, and tuba
What had wires been iinitially used for in the 19th century?
Long-distance communication via the telegraph and the telphone
What Italian inventor achieved a breakthrough in wireless technology?
Guglielmo Marconi (1874 to 1937)
When was speech transmitted for the first time?
December 23, 1900
Who presented the first public radio broadcasts on January 12 and 13, 1900?
Lee De Forest
What did Lee De Forest transmit as the first public radio broadcasts and what singer was featured?
Two performances of New York's Metropolitan Opera with the voice of Enrico Caruso (1873 to 1921)
What disaster caused the Radio Act of 1912?
The 1912 Titanic disaster
What was the nearest ship to receive the Titanic's distress signal but ignore it because the radio operator was off-duty?
What were the two main requirements of the Radio Act of 1912?
That all seagoing vessels needed to hire enough radio operators so that distress frequencies could be monitored continuously and all U.S> radio stations needed to be licensed by the U.S. government
When did The Department of Commerce shut down all private radio operations in the United States?
April 7, 1917
When was private radio operations restored by the Department of Commerce
What was the first song recorded onto tinfoil in 1877 by Thomas Edison?
Mary Had a Little Lamb
What did Edison initially view his phonograph as useful for?
As a dictation machine for use in business offices
What invention did Edison swap the phonograph for?
His electric light
What machine did Columbia introduce at the same time Edison was marketing his phonograph?
What device followed the graphophone?
What style of disks were common in affluent houses by 1910?
78 rpm discs
What symphony did the Berlin Philharmonic record in 1913?
Fifth Symphony by Beethoven
How many discs did the Fifth Symphony by Beethoven require?
8 discs bound in an album
How much did Enrico Caruso make on average per year from 1904 to 1920?
What manufacturer produced a trennch model gramophone for th efront line?
What grieving musician found solace in the gramophone after his brother was killed in 1916?
What corporal experienced a bombardment with his gramophone?
Corporal A.D> Pankhurst
What English battery commander used a record containing defiant anti-German songs as an assault weapon in 1918?
Who was the German lieutenant who captured Captain Parrish's trench and his gramophone?
What American recorded more than two thousands Native American melodies?
What was the problem with early recording machines and folk music?
That it had to be shortened or performed much quicker than usual because of the limited amount of time on the recording
What new term was developed to describe the work of musicians recording traditional folk melodies?
Who were two Hungarian scholars and composers?
Zoltan Kodaly and Bela Bartok
What machine did Edison unveil in 1891?
What was the Kinetoscope?
A machine that allowed one person at a time to view silent images
What was a Kinetophone?
A Kinetoscope cabinet equipped with a phonograph so a person could hear music through headphones
What was the problem with early films?
That they were silent
How was music provided during silent films?
Provided by lie musicians
What was the coordination of a phonograph or gramophone with the projector known as?
Sound on disc technology
When did American inventor Lee De Forest and others perfect a vacuum tube that permit a louder sound amplification?
In the 1920's
Sound with films had to wait until the development of what technology?
What were short films with sound known as?
What was the first feature film with spoken dialogue?
The Jazz Singer (1927)
Who called Erik Satie's music shapeless and that it lacked form?
What did Erik Satie write in response to Debussy's criticism of his music?
Three Pieces in the Form of a Pear (1903)
Who would become famous for his drip paintings where he poured or threw paint over his canvas?
What composer achieved notoriety for works such as The Tides of Manaunaun (1912)
What did Henry Cowell use in The Tides of Manaunauun?
Tone clusters where blocks of sound are produced by using the fist or even the entire forearm
What painting started the Impressionist movement?
Who painted Impression Sunrise?
What French artists were experimenting with Impressionism?
Eduord Manet, Edgar Dea and Pierre-Auguste Renoir
What English painter was a pioneer of Impressionism?
What were the Impressionists paintings?
What were Impressionist fascinated by?
Depicting the effects of light
What critic claimed that Wallpaper was better than Monet's painting?
What art critic said that Impressionists rendered the sensation produced by the landscape?
What was the form of Impressionist pieces?
Vague and inexact with common floating sensations
What was the harmony of Impressionism based on?
Common practice tonality but with more added pitches
How many half steps are in the whole tone scale?
What is the effect of no half steps?
There is no natural pull to the tonic
What French poetry movement has parallels with Impressionism?
WHo were Symbolist poets?
Charles Baudelaire, Stephane Mallarme, Paul Verlaine and Albert Giraud from Belgium
What did Symbolist poetry emphasize imagery over?
What was one of the most famous Impressionist compositions?
Debussy's Prelude to the Afternoon of a Faun
What is Prelude to the Afternoon of a Faun based on?
A symbolist poem by Mallarme
What Frenchman also wrote Impressionist pieces?
What woman wrote Impressionist pieces?
What awad did Lili Boulanger win?
The Prix de Rome
What Italian used Impressionist ideas in Fountains of Rome (1916)?
Ottorino Respighi 1879-1936
What English composer living in France also wrote Impressionist pieces?
Frederick Delius, 1862-1934
Who helped introduce Impressionist ideas to the United States?
Charles Griffes 1884 to 1920
What piece form Roman Sketches of 1915-16 helped introduce Impressionist ideas to the United States?
The White Peacock
What term did Debussy prefer to Impressionism?
How many books of Preludes are there?
How many works are in each book of Preludes
A dozen works for solo piano
What are the two most famous Preludes?
The Sunken Cathedral and The Girl with the Flaxen Hair
What kind of pieces are Preludes?
When were character pieces become popular?
The Romantic period
What is the word prelude a reference to?
Preludes and Fugues composed by J.S. Bach
Who challenged listeners expectations by putting together entire sets of character pieces that he labeled preludes?
Where did Debussy put the title of each Prelude?
At the end of each piece
What could voiles mean?
The veil or the sail
Who was Debussy making a tribute to with his preludes?
What is the structure of Voiles?
ABA or ternary
How many motifs does Debussy craft from a whole tone scale in the opening of the prelude of Voiles?
What scale does Debussy use for the middle portion of Voiles?
A pentatonic scale
What is a glissando?
A rapid gesture that resembles the sweeping motion of a harp
Who was Debussy's teacher?