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What type of observational analytic study examines the relationship between diseases and other variable of interest as they exist in defined population at one point in time?
A. Case control
B. Cohort study
C. Cross sectional study
D. Prevalence study
E. C and D

E. C and D
(Cross sectional study & Prevalence study)

Advantage of cross sectional/prevalence study is its conducted quickly and with less cost.


This type of study is the gold standard or referrence in medicine?
A. Cohort
B. Case control
C. Clinical trials
D. Field trials
E. Randomized control trial

E. Randomized control trial

It also provides greatest justification for concluding for concluding causality and is the best study design to establish efficacy of a treatment or procedure.


In a case control of pancreatic cancer and coffee drinking, controls were selected from gastroenterologist's patients in same hospital. However, GI patients are less likely to drink
coffee than the rest of the population because of their disease. Hence the odds ratio for coffee drinking was artificially
increased due to under-representation of coffee drinkers among controls. What type of bias is being described?
A. Lead time bias
B. Popularity bias
C. Centripetal bias
D. Berkson bias
E. Confounding bias

D. Berkson bias

If hospital cases/controls have different exposures than population based cases/controls then the OR will be biased.


The probability of not having the condition given a negative test?
A. Sensitivity
B. Specificity
C. Positive predictive value
D. Negative predictive value
E. Risk ratio

D. Negative predictive value


This type of sampling divides the population into clusters. Then a sample cluster is selected and every element found in
the chosen cluster is included in the study:
A. Simple random sampling
B. Systematic random samplin
C. Cluster sampling
D. Multistage sampling design E. None of the above

C. Cluster sampling


The height of each member in a group of friends were measured. Their measured height (in inches) are the following: 58, 67, 71, 57, 65, 65, 60, 65. What is the average height of the group?
A. 63.5
B. 73.5
C. 61.5
D. 71.5
E. 68.5

A. 63.5


Find the median of the above values?
A. 65
B. 67
C. 60
D. 71
E. 57

A. 65


Find the range of the above values?
A. 14
B. 12
C. 7
D. 11.5
E. 11

A. 14


The birth certificate is a document verifying a person's identity. It must be filed within how many days after birth?
A. 25 days
B. 12 days
C. 36 days
D. 30 days
E. 24 days

D. 30 days


In the transtheoretical model of change in behavior the patient is not even think about changing. There are active signs of resistanfce to change. In this stage, the physician's role is to induce awareness?
A. Precontemplation
B. Contemplation
C. Preparation
D. Action
E. Maintenance

A. Precontemplation


This type of family structure includes step parents and step children. Caused by annulment with remarriage and separation.
A. Communal family
B. Nuclear
C. Extended family
D. Single parent family
E. Blended family

E. Blended family

Communal-individuals grouped for specific ideology; Nuclear- parents and still dependent children.


This APGAR component measures the family to utilize and share inherent resources which are either intrafamilial or extra familial?
A. Partnership
B. Adaptation
C. Growth
D. Affection
E. Resolve

B. Adaptation

Partnership-solving problems by communicating, sharing of decision making;
Growth- freedom to grow and change;
Affection- intimacy and emotional interaction within the family;
Resolve-members satisfaction with the commitment made by the members of the family


In non verbal communication between MD and patient, what connotes and establish a sense of personal relationship with the patient?
A. Eye contact
B. Mannerisms
C. Gesture
D. Touch
E. Tone of voice

D. Touch

Eye contact-indicates sincerity; Mannerisms may distract patient; Gestures should be done with ease and spontaneity.


What republic act mandates to inform parents of the newborn screening and importance of such?
A. RA 7432
B. RA 6675
C. RA 9288
D. RA 6615
E. RA 9165

C. RA 9288

RA 7432-senior citizens act, RA 6675-generic drugs act; RA 9165-dangerous drugs act


Which of the following statements accurately describes colon cancer screening?
A. Flexible sigmoidoscopy every 3 years
B. Colonoscopy every 10 years
C. Double contrast barium every 3 years
D. Ct colonography(virtual colonoscopy) every 10 years
E. All are correct

B. Colonoscopy every 10 years

Flexible sigmoidoscopy(every 5 years), Double countrast barium enema-every 5 years, CT colonography-every 5 years.


The ability of the agent to invade and multiply:
A. pathogenicity
B. Virulence
C. Antigenicity
D. Resilience
E. None of the above

E. None of the above

Infectivity-ability of the agent to invade and multiply.


Sound is measured via intensity(dB) and frequency(Hz). How much dB is the threshold for pain?
A. 100 B. 90 C. 80 D. 120 E. 110

D. 120

10-normal breathing,
60 dB- conversation, continuous
>90 dB exposure- hearing loss,
120 dB-pain


A 44 year old female was under intense sun exposure for about 3 hours. She suddenly felt weak and decided to consult the nearest hospital. Upon PE, she had moist skin, Temp of 38.5, weak pulse and BP of 80/60. What is the likely diagnosis?
A. Heat stroke
B. Heat exhaustion
C. Heat cramps
D. Heat syncope
E. None of the above

B. Heat exhaustion

Heat stroke: hyperthermia,delirium,coma;

Heat cramps: painful muscle cramps;

Heat syncope: fainting


What substance is found in antifreeze and may cause high anion gap metabolic acidosis?
A. Ethylene glycol
B. Asbestos
C. Sulfur dioxide
D. Benzene
E. Cadmium

A. Ethylene glycol

Sulfur dioxide: present in SMOG


This is the most important single test to find out if water is potenitally dangerous?
A. Bacteriology
B. Physical
C. Chemical
D. Biological
E. Radiological

A. Bacteriology

Radiological-done if one suspects their presence;

Biogical-determine kind of microscopic life;

Physical-analysis of physical attributes