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Flashcards in MIDTERM Deck (20)
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1

The most sensitive index of assessing health status in the community is:
A. Swaroop's index
B. Infant mortality rate
C. Child mortality rate
D. Maternal mortality rate
E. Case fatality rate

B. Infant mortality rate

Infant mortality rate is the most sensitive index of assessing health status in the community. High IMR means low level of health standards.

2

A research supported a conclusion that a positive relationship exists between consumption of crabs and developing liver cirrhosis, when the reality is there is no relationship that occurs in the population. The researcher committed a:
A. Type 1 error
B. Type 2 error
C. Samplling error
D. β error
E. Error of not rejecting the null hypothesis

A. Type 1 error

Type 1 error (α error/error of commission): rejecting the null hypothesis when it is really true.

Type 2 error (β error/error of omission): failing to reject the null hypothesis when it is really false.

3

The number of dengue cases in the Philippines from October 2015 to March 2016 is best presented in a:
A. Scatter plot
B. Pie chart
C. Bar graph
D. Line graph
E. Pictograph

D. Line graph

Trend data or changes with time or age with respect to other variabes is best presented in a line graph.

4

The time interval between invasion by an infectious agent and the maximal infectivity of the host:
A. Serial interval
B. Generation time
C. Incubation period
D. Infectious period
E. Commmunicable period

B. Generation time

SIMILAR TO PREVIOUS BOARD EXAM CONCEPT/PRINCIPLE: Generation time is the interval between receipt of infetion and maximal infectivity of the host. Incubation period is the time from exposure to development of the disease.

5

In a study conducted among factory workers, 200 workers with respiratory disease and 300 workers with no respiratory disease were selected. The investigators obtained a history of exposure to asbestos in both groups. Among workers with respiratory disease, 140 gave a history of exposure to asbestos, compared to 75 of the workers without respiratory disease. The study design used is a:
A. Cohort
B. Cross-sectional
C. Case-control
D. Comparative clinical trial
E. Correlational

C. Case-control

In this study, persons with a given disease (respiratory disease) and persons wtihout the disease (without respiratory disease) are selected. The researcher then looked at exposure to both groups by history-taking.

6

Mr. BB recently graduated from medical school, he ranked 13th among 265 graduates. Class rank in medical school is what type of scale?
A. Nominal
B. Ordinal
C. Interval
D. Ratio
E. Categorical

B. Ordinal

Ordinal scales are arranged in rank ordered categories.

7

In a study conducted among admitted patients in a hospital, 85 of smokers have lung cancer while 114 of smokers have no lung cancer. Likewise, 34 of non smokers have lung cancer while 77 of non smokers have no lung cancer. What is the odds ratio?
A. 1.79
B. 3.7
C. 1.69
D. 3.6
E. 2.6

C. 1.69

To compute for odds ratio, the odds of having the disease in exposed group divided by odds of having disease in unexposed group, such that 85/34 ÷ 114/77 = 1.69.

8

Eye examination in a patient with type 2 DM is an example of what level of prevention?
A. Primordial
B. Primary
C. Secondary
D. Tertiary
E. Quaternary

D. Tertiary

Tertiary level of prevention refers to interventions designed to arrest the progress of an established disease and to control its negative consequence

9

30 guests who attended a birthday party developed severe abdominal pain and watery diarrhea. The type of epidemic is:
A. Point source outbreak
B. Propagated epidemic
C. Progressive epidemic
D. Mixed epidemic
E. Continuous common source outbreak

A. Point source outbreak

A point source outbreak is a common source outbreak where the exposure period is short. Epidemic curve rises and fall rapidly.

10

Who among the following do not pay premiums but are entitled of benefits from PhilHealth?
A. Retiree and pensioners
B. Members who reached age of retirement and have paid at least 120 monthly contributions
C. Enrolled indigents
D. Privately-sponsored member
E. All of the above

E. All of the above

Current members of PhilHealth are classified as follows: 1) Paying members: government employee, private sector employee, individually-paying member; 2) Indigent member; 3) Privately-sponsored member; 4) Lifetime member/covered member.

11

Essential elements of primary health care:
A. Basic sanitation
B. Promotion of mental health
C. Family planning
D. Proper nutrition
E. All of the above

E. All of the above

Basic sanitation
Promotion of mental health
Family planning
Proper nutrition

12

It is a dynamic process of engaging people in community action for a common goal:
A. Social mobilization
B. Multi-sectoral approach
C. Strategic planning
D. Rational planning
E. Pep talking

A. Social mobilization

Social mobilization is a dynamic process of engaging people in community action for a common goal.

13

The contraception method lasting up to 3 years and uses progestin only with no estrogen-related side-effects?
A. Injectable
B. Implant
C. IUD
D. Oral contraceptives
E. Vaginal ring

B. Implant

Progestin only implants is a small flexible rod that is inserted right under the skin of the inner arm lasting up to 3 years.

14

In the Philippines, the most common type of occupational disease is:
A. Carpal tunnel syndrome
B. Hearing loss
C. Back pain
D. Heat exhaustion
E. Hypertension

C. Back pain

SIMILAR TO PREVIOUS BOARD EXAM CONCEPT/PRINCIPLE: Back pain is the most common type of occupational disease in the Philippines.

15

Scabies is what type of a water-related disease?
A. Water-borne
B. Water-washed
C. Water-based
D. Water-related
E. Water-dependent

B. Water-washed

Water-washed diseases are transmitted from person to person due to inadequate water supply for personal hygiene and/or domestic cleaning.

16

Persistent level of occurrence with a low to moderate disease level is referred to as:
A. Epidemic
B. Secular
C. Endemic
D. Pandemic
E. Sporadic

C. Endemic

Endemicity refers to constant occurrence of the disease, usually at a low frequency.

17

What happens to incidence and prevalence if the number of persons dying from the condition increases?
A. Decrease in incidence, decrease in prevalence
B. No change in incidence, No change in prevalence
C. Decrease in incidence, no change in prevalence
D. No change in incidence, decrease in prevalence
E. Decrease in incidence, increase in prevalence

D. No change in incidence, decrease in prevalence

If the number of persons dying from the condition increases, the prevalence will decrease but there will be no change in incidence.

18

The proportion of truly diseased persons in the screened population who are identified as diseased by the screening test refers to:
A. Sensitivity
B. Specificity
C. Positive predictive value
D. Negative prective value
E. Accuracy

A. Sensitivity

Sensitivity is the ability of the test to label positive those who really have the disease.

19

A new diagnostic test is used for early screening of pancreatic cancer, those among 50 persons positive for the test, 7 developed pancreatic cancer whereas among 50 patients negative to the test, 47 did not develop pancreatic cancer. Compute for the positive-predictive value of the test.
A. 94%
B. 70%
C. 52%
D. 47%
E. 14%

E. 14%

To compute for positive predictive value: A/A+B = 7/7+43 = 14%

20

Based on the above case, compute for the sensitivity of the test:
A. 94%
B. 70%
C. 52%
D. 47%
E. 14%

B. 70%

To compute for sensitivity: A/A+C = 7/7+3 = 70%