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1

4 week old male infant presents with new onset regurgitation, projectile, nonbilious vomiting after feeding

pyloric stenosis

2

pyloric stenosis is associated with

turner syndrome and trisomy 18,
erythromycin and azithromycin exposure

3

newborn fails to pass meconium in the immediate postnatal period. constipation is noted . with visible, ineffective peristalsis that continues to abdominal distension and bilious vomiting

hirschsprung disease

4

hirschsprung disease is associated with

down syndrome and RET gene mutations

5

esophageal mucosal webs are associated with

women older than 40
ge refulux
chronic graft vs host disease
blistering skin disease
iron deficiency anemia
glossitis
cheliosis
paterson-brown-kelly
plummer-vinson syndrome

6

40= yo woman presents with nonprogressive dysphagia and iron deficency anemia, what does she have

esophageal mucosal webs
ass. with plummer vinson in this scenario

7

pt presents with dysphagia for solids and liquids, difficulty burping, chest pain

achalasia

8

achalasia is associated with

chagas disease
diabetic autoimmune neuropathy
malignancy, amyloidosis, sarcoidosis, lesions of the dorsal motor nuclei
down dsyndrome
allgrove (triple a) syndrome
HSV

9

pt presents with hematemasis after a night of binge drinking
endoscopy reveals superficial esophageal lacerations

mallory-weiss tears

10

severe chest pain, tachypnea, and shock after a night of binge drinking

boerhaave syndrome

11

most common cause of esophagitis

reflux esophagitis

12

40+ obese drinker/smoker presents iwth heartburn, dysphagia and sour taste upon burping

GERD

13

associations for GERD

tobacco/alcohol use
40+
obesity
CNS depressant use
pregnancy
hiatal hernia
delayed gastric emptying/increased gastric volume

14

complications of GERD

ulceration
hematemasis
melena
stricture development
Barrett esophagus

15

child with GERD like symptoms, large number of intraepithelial eosinophils on endoscopy

eosinophilic esophagitis

16

55 yo known alcoholic presents to ER with symptoms of shock. Dilated umbilical veins are noted while placing leads. Hemorrhage of what lead to his hypovolemic state

esophageal varices

17

50yo caucasian male with a history of GERD presents for a follow up endoscopy, where it is noted there is a transition from squamous epithelium to columnar epithelium above the GE junction, with the latter containing cells with distinctive pale blue vacuoles on H&E stain
what does he have

barrett esophagus
cells are goblet cells

18

60 yo caucasian male with a hx of tobacco and alcohol use presents with CC of difficult, painful swallowing. During his hx he admits he has unintentionally lost 20 lbs in last 2 months. what does he have/

adenocarcinoma

19

risk factors associated with adenocarcinoma

Barrett esophagus
tobacco/alcohol
diet low in fruits/veggies
caucasian
male

20

most common cause of chronic gastritis

H pylori infection