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Flashcards in Preventative Care Deck (32):

Flow chart of impacts of animal diseases on human well-being


Define prevention of infectious diseases

Prevention of infectious diseases can be defined as inhibiting the introduction or establishment of a disease into an area, herd, or individual.


define control of infectious diseases

control is a better term when infectious disease is already present.  refers to containment of the disease.



eradication of an infectious disease involves complete elimination of the pathogen or the disease-causing agent from the defined geographic region.


levels of infectious disease prevention

Primary: maintaining healthy pop by avoiding occurence of disease through elimination of pathogen or increased resistance

Secondary: halts progression of disease.  early intervention and containment

Tertiary: rehabilitation and elimination of ling-term impairment


Farm Biosecurity (10)

Farm Biosecurity: biosecurity on a farm comprises all measures taken to minimize the risk of the introduction and spread of infectious agents.

  • purchasing policy
  • dirty and clean road
  • vehicles entering/leaving
  • people/visitors
  • fodder and water
  • equipment
  • housing and managment
  • vermin and bird control
  • monitoring animal health
  • disposal of dead bodies



Biosecurity measures: purchasing policy

New animals should be quarentined for a time dependant upon the incubation period of common/important infectious diseases.


incubation period- time elapsed between infection and presentation of symptoms.


The principle of the dirty and clean road

Biosecurity measures

There should be a clean entrance and a dirty entrance on any given farm.  clean entrance for staff access to herd and facilities.  dirty entrance for drop offs and shipments of non-control animals


Biosecurity measures: people

biosecurity measures: people

  • keep visitors to a minimum
  • log book
  • have standardized disenfectment equipment and procedures in place (boots, footbath, hand washing)


Biosecurity measures: fodder and water

Biosecurity measures: fodder and water

  • do not feed animal byproduct
  • purchase from quality suppliers
  • avoid contamination in all stages (storage/delivery)


Biosecurity measures: housing and managment (3)

Biosecurity measures: housing and managment

  • All-in and all-out housing policy
    • animals moved into and out of facilties in distinct groups prevents disease spread by preventing contact between groups.
  • minimize contact between younger and older animals
  • maintain optimal stocking density


Biosecurity measures: disposal of dead bodies

Biosecurity measures: disposal of dead bodies

  • remove promptly
  • store correctly
  • dispose within 48 hours
    • burying
    • composting
    • incinerating


General considerations to control transmission in pets(7)

General considerations to control transmission in pets(7)

  • avoid overcrowding
  • isolation/quarentine wards
  • good nutrition
  • vaccination
  • sanitation
  • reduce stress
  • routine health monitoring and record keeping



Decontamination technique

antisepsis= application of a liquid antimicromial chemical to skin/tissue to inhibit/destroy microorganisms


Sterilization methods (5)

Sterilization methods

  • moist heat
  • dry heat
  • chemical methods
  • radiation
  • steril filtration



PPE= Personal protective equipment

  • standard veteranary precaution
  • gown
  • mask
  • face shield
  • gloves


pyrimid of infectious diseases

Red Zone= major diseases and zoonoses.  goal is eradication

Yellow Zone= other major diseases.  goal is maintenence

Green Zone= remaining diseases


Chain of infection


Breaking chain of infection


Example of Resevoirs

African horse disease

  • zebras cary
  • flies bite
  • transfer to horse 

Transmissible Gastroenteritis

  • infected pig
  • carried on farm boots
  • to healthy pig


Resevoir Neutrilization

Resevoir Neutrilization

  • remove infected individuals (test and slaughter)
  • mass therapy (treat all)
  • environmental manipulation


Vector Control

Vector control

  • source reduction
    • get rid of pools of water
  • biological control
    • introduce natural enemies
  • chemical control
    • insecticides


Reducing contact potential

Reducing contact potential

  • Isolation- separate animals that show clinical signs
  • Quarentine- regardless of test results/signs
  • Population control programs


Protection of portals of entry

Protection of portals of entry

  • repellants
  • protective clothing
  • nets


Increasing host resistance

Increasing host resistance

  • chemoprophylaxi: antimicrobial drugs
  • immunization: vaccination (4W's)
    • Where?
    • When?
    • Who?
    • Why?


Features of a good vaccine

Features of a good vaccine

  • safe to use
  • effective
  • few sideffects
  • long lasting protection
  • low cost
  • stable shelf life
  • easy to administer
  • inexpensive
  • benefit outweighs the risk


Herd immunity

Herd immunity

= immunity due to vaccination/ immunity of majority of population


Disease Control Program

Disease Control Program

  • rationale for establishing program
  • set up goals and objectives
  • program planning
  • implementation


Surveilence Networks

Surveilence Networks

  • WAHIS- Wild animal health 
  • Disease Forecasting
    • ex. in india vets report diesease outbreak with app


Diagnostic capability (pyrimid)

Diagnostic capability


Outbreak investigation

  • preparation for field work
  • coordination with public health
  • confirmation of report
  • confirmation of diagnosis
  • epidemiological follow up
  • collection of data and distribution
  • inplement control
  • document and report


Zones and Areas