Flashcards in Previous Tests Deck (150):
The abdominal muscle groups extend the spine. True or False
The intercostal muscles are the main muscle group involved in respiration. True or False
If a horse is moving well before being saddles, but is unsound on one front limb after being saddled, the ascending pectoral muscle could be a major contributing factor. True or False.
If you are performing a Spina Prominens Reflex test and you find the horse very reactive, it usually means that it is a chronic issue. True or False
When performing the Logan Basic Technique, if you are applying pressure, to the Sacrotuberous ligament on the right side, you will be focusing your attention on the opposite ear. True or False
If a saddle has too much rock when checking it without a pad, adding an appropriate pad will take out or reduce the amount of rock. True or False
If you add a bumper (or riser) pad to an english saddle, it usually creates bridging. True or False
The panels on an english saddle are the pieces of leather between your legs and the horse. True or False
If you found 1/2 inch of bridging when checking the saddle bare, you could:
a) add a 1/2 inch thick pad to correct the problem
b) add shims to correct the problem
c) use a riser pad to correct the problem
d) recommend your client get a different saddle.
If your client was using her/his saddle for ranch work, you would suggest a saddle with:
a) a moulded composite tree
b) a fibreglass covered wood tree
c) a rawhide covered wood tree
d) a tree with floating cars
If you are assessing an english saddle with a narrow gullet (channel) and the horse is a 10 year old underweight Thoroughbred, the saddle will:
a) create bridging
b) create pressure over the kidney area
c) have too much rock
d) create pressure along the spine
At what joint would you find osselets?
At what joint would you find high ringbone
P1 - long pastern
What is a valgus strain?
An outward leg
What is a varus strain?
An inward leg.
The splenius muscle and the large complex (semispinalis capitis) are both neck extensors. True or False
The lymphatic system is a system of absorption and filtration. True or False
Lymphatic vessels drain tissue spaces. True or False
The key function of the spleen related to immunity is the production of ______ cells.
The digestive system is a process of ______ and _____.
Conversion and Absorption.
Name the three sections that make up the small intestine.
Duodemon, Jujudomen, Ileum
What is the Alimentary Canal?
Is the whole digestive tract from mouth to anus.
In what part of the body is the gall bladder located?
No where. Horses do not have gall bladders.
What is the most common cause of colic?
The main purpose of muscles is to
What is cartilage and where is it most often found?
Hard connective tissue, that forms body parts like the ears where there is no bone.
List the five classes of bones:
1) Long Bones
2) Short Bones
3) Irregular Bones
4) Flat Bones
5) Sesamoid Bones
The ball and socket joint is capable of performing six types of movement. They are:
The term 'Acquired Chi' means vibrancy or Chi at the time of birth. True or False
There are 12 paired meridians. True or False`
When palpating a ting point, finding it dry and hollow means it is over energy. True or False
Pulse points are located:
a) along the intercostal spaces on the ribs
b) on the coronet band of the foot and between the bulbs of the foot
c) above the knee on the medial aspect of the radius bone
d) above the knee on the lateral aspect of the radius bone
To find a meridian that is over energy, you would:
a) muscle test the corresponding muscle
b) palpate and muscle test the pulse points
c) palpate the ting points
d) both b and c
If you find a meridian that is over energy you would consider:
a) using the sedation points found in your book
b) using the tonification points found in your book
c) addressing the associated ting points
d) both a and c
When assessing pulse points, it is possible to assess how many meridians on the left side of the horse?
The most common type of colic is:
a) spasmodic colic
b) acute gastric indigestion
c) impaction colic
d) urinary colic
Acupressure points are not found along meridian lines are called Shu Points. True or False
If a horse is moving well before being saddled but, is unsound on one front limb after being saddled, the ascending pectoral muscle could be a major contributing factor. True or False
While performing a Spina Prominens Reflex test, you find little or no reaction; this would likely mean the issue is more acute. True or False
While performing a spring test on the left coxal tuber you find little or no movement, this would mean the coxal tuber is subluxed ventral. True or False.
While you are observing a horse moving you see one hind leg moving normal but, the other hind only protracts part way, stops in mid air and then slaps to the ground, you would find the major issues in the:
a) quadraceps, iliopsoas, tensor of the fascia latae and superficial gluteal mm's
b) latissimus dorsi, longest dorsal, iliopsoas and middle glutea mm's
c) middle gluteal, semitendonous, semimembranous, and biceps femoris mm's
d) satorius, adductor and gracilis mm's
If you are retracting a front limb and you find the movement is restricted, you would likely find issues in the following muscles:
a) brachiocephalicus, cervical trapezuis, cervical rhomboid, and cervical serrated
b) latissimus dorsi, ascending pectoral, thoracic serrated and thoracic trapezius
c) ascending pectoral, latissimus dorsi, cervical trapezius, cervical rhomboid
d) thoracic trapezius, thoracic rhomboid, thoracic serrated and brachiocephalicus
The brachial nerve plexus is a concentration of nerves exiting the spine at:
b) C5,6,7, T1,2
c) L5,6,7, S1,2
d) C4,5,6,7, T1
If while manually assessing the thoracic spine, you find a muscle spasm more on the left than the right, this would mean the spinous process has moved away from or to the opposite side of the spasm. True or False
Describe how you would manually check for a subluxation in the atlas.
Two fingers between the mandible of the jaw and the transverse processes of C1, while keeping the head straight, feeling if there is an equal space on both sides. Also extend the head.
If you find a horse with a sore low back, restricted pelvis/hind end and is very reactive when you palpate the flank are, what would be the likely cause?
Usually large intestine or cecum.
If you were called to check out a horse and the rider is complaining the horse is having difficulty initiating the right lead, what part(s) or area(s) of the body would you likely find issues?
Right front, left hind, ribs
While you are assessing a horse you find him very reactive or sore over the entire body and does not want you to touch him, what is a common problem that could cause this?
Nervous system. Upper cervical issues. Could be toxins. Aura is not built up properly.
If you find the entire nervous system in general is a 1/10, what are some underlying issues that could cause this?
Cranial nerves, usually upper cervical, feed is an issue, toxins in the body.
The origin of the long head of the triceps muscle is the:
a) spine of the scapula
c) serrated face of the scapula
d) caudal border of the scapula
The insertion of all three heads of the triceps muscle is the:
c) distal humerus
d) medial humerus
The origin of the semitendinous muscle is the
a) tuber coxae
b) caudal sacrum and CD 1&2
c) caudal sacrum and ishium
d) ishium and medial stifle
The semitendinous muscle is a protractor of the hind limb. True or False
The origin of the iliopsoas muscle is the
a) TP's of the lumbar vertebrae and the last two ribs
b) SP's of lumbar vertebrae and the last two ribs
c) Tp's of lumbar vertebrae and the sacrum
d) gluteal fascia and medial ilium
The insertion of the iliopsoas muscle is the
a) lateral femur
b) proximal humerus
c) medial tibia
d) medial femur
The origin of the biceps femoris is the
a) thoracolumbar fascia and ilium
b) gluteal fascia and ishium
c) gluteal fascia and ilium
d) tuber coxae, lateral ilium and gluteal fascia
The origin of the middle gluteal is the
a) tuber coxae, lateral ilium, and gluteal fascia
b) gluteal fascia and ilium
c) lateral femur
d) tuber coxae and lateral ilium
The middle gluteal muscle extends the hip joint. True or False
The brachiocephalicus protracts the front limb when the horse is standing. True or Fasle
The insertion of the brachiocephalicus muscle when the horse is moving is the
a) mastoid process
b) cranial border of the humerus
c) cranial border of the radius
d) cranial border of the scapula
The insertion of the cervical serrated muscle when the horse is standing is the
a) TP's of C3-C7
b) serrated face of the scapula
c) spine of the scapula
d) 1st 8 or 9 ribs
The action of the cervical serrated muscle when the horse is standing is to rotate the scapula cranially which assists in the retraction of the limb. True or False
The action of the ascending pectoral muscle is to protract the front limb. True or False
The biceps brachii extends the shoulder joint. True or False
What purpose do wolf teeth serve?
What is a bit seat?
A performance float to make room for the bit so that it can glide against the teeth rather that pinch cheek.
Name seven things you can manually do (not muscle testing) to assess the mouth for dental imbalances. (without putting your whole hand/arm in the horse's mouth)
1) visual inspect the temporalis and masserter muscle
2) palpate the TMJ
3) lift the lip and inspect incisors
4) palpate along jaw for any pain or sensitivity
5) shift the jaw from side to side for any restriction
6) open the mouth and look at molars
7) palpate the temporalis and masserter muscle.
What does it mean when we say a horses mouth is out of occlusion?
That the bottom and top teeth are not in alignment when brought together. The teeth will not be connected to insure the most efficent mastification.
Mares do not have wolf teeth. True or False
In what part of the horses mouth are wolf teeth most commonly found.
Before the premolars
Where are the canine teeth usually found?
Between the incisors and molars on top or bottom or both. More likely in gelding but can be in mares
Why do you think it is possible for wild horses to maintain functional tooth balance when our domesticated horses do not?
Because of the natural silica in the grass that helps grind down sharp edges, plus they do not have human power floating and taking more than 1/8 off.
List seven things you need to check out when considering magnets as a treatment.
a) magnets treatment appropiate
b) what type of magnet
c) what size of magnet
d) how many points
e) magnet strength
f) how long
g) another treatment needed
The south pole of a monopolar magnet is the positive pole. True or False
What are two main characteristics of a south pole magnet?
means go, acidic properties
What are two main characteristics of a north pole magnet?
Means stop, alkaline, reduce inflammation
What are two imbalances you could cause if magnets are used incorrectly?
Disruption in CNS, lymphatic system if toxins are moved to quickly, creating an acidic state if an alkaline state is needed
Describe what a bipolar magnet is.
Circles inside of circles going north and south then north and south.
List six assessment techniques you would use the check for rider imbalance.
a) leg length - laying down on belly compare hells
b) iliac crest height - highest point
c) check PSIS - at dipples in back scoop under
d) check ASIS - at front draw line across, use belly button
e) check shoulder - are they even
f) check wrist - equal length
Long toe low heel syndrome can reduce circulation to the foot. True or False
Toe grabs are used on many thoroughbred race horses. This can severely reduce circulation to the foot. True or False
Inflammation is the main/first symptom of an abscess. True or False
Sidebones are calcification of the lateral cartilages. True or False
Low ringbone affects the joint between the long and short pastern. True or False
From duckets dot there should be 2/3rds of the foot forward and 1/3 behind the have a balance foot. True or False
What is meant by the term seedy toe?
Stretching or seperation of the white line from wall. Usually creating a pocket for debris to get into.
What is meant by the term run under heels?
When the heels fall under the horse, and they tend to call collapsed creating an unbalanced foot as the 2/3 and 1/3 would be opposite now and the leg would sit back.
When you look at a horse, name three visual things that could indicate chronic founder.
Overweight, thick neck, fat deposit, poor hoof balance, compromised nerve or circulation to foot
How would you recognize thrush and what things would you test to help it?
Black fungus, smelly odour, wet environment.
Hydrogen peroxide food grade 3%
Organ testing: Teeth
Organ Testing: Brain
Organ Testing: Heart
Organ Testing: Thyroid
Organ Testing: Colon
Where is the thyroid gland located in the horse?
Lies in the neck, in front of the upper part of the trachea
If the thyroid gland was not in balance, list two natural products you might consider using?
wild yam, chaste tree berry
Where is the liver located in the horse?
Right: Lobus hepatis quadratus and dextrum, intercostal ribs 6-15
Left: Lobus hepatis sinistra, intercostal ribs 6-10
If the liver is unbalanced, list two natural products you might consider using?
Milk Thistle and dandelion root
Where are the kidneys located in the horse?
low back, lateral to adrenals, on both sides
If the kidneys were not in balance, list two natural products you might consider using?
Kidney flush, juniper berry
Where are the adrenal glands located in the horse?
Medial to kidneys, low back area
If the adrenals were not in balance, list two natural products you might consider using?
Astraglus root and asghawanda
Where is the spleen located in the horse?
On the left side in the abdominal cavity
Where is the gallbladder located in the horse?
Dont have one
The semitendinous, semimembranous, and middle gluteal muscles are commonly known as hamstrings. True or False
What are two main reasons you would suggest the use of a second saddle pad?
For a disciple that requires the pads for impact and to reduce the amount of rock
What is meant by the term bridging?
Air or space between the saddle tree or panels and your horse that can cause pressure points.
With a western saddle, what is meant by the term, "full double rigged"?
Two cinches where the first cinch is at the full mark, hanging at front of saddle in front of leg and then a back cinch.
The lymphatic system has numerous functions, name three.
a) absorption and filtration
b) survielance and defence
c) drain tissue spaces
Name two functions of the liver.
filtrate the blood, detox, regulate blood
Name four functions of the skeleton.
- provide RBC
- acts as a framwork
- attachment point for muscles
- protect vital organs
What is periosteum?
The membrane covering bone
What is remodeling?
The striping of bone to create new. With new bone marrow, growing regularly
What is ossification?
The build up of calcification in a joint.
If you are retracting a hind limb and you find ROM restricted, you will likely find restrictions in the following muscles:
a) semitendinous, semimembranous, biceps femoris, middle gluteal MM's
b) iliopsoas, TFL, quads, superficial gluteal
c) middle gluteal, iliopsoas, quads, biceps femoris
d) quads, superficial gluteal, middle gluteal, iliopsoas
If you are performing a spring test on the left coxal tuber, and you find very restricted, what muscles might be the issue and tell me what side would likely have the most issues?
iliopsoas, superficial and middle gluteal, TFL, quads, possibly depending on length of injury caudal dorsal serrated and hamstrings. I would think that the left side would have most issues
If you are palpating a horses back and you find it reactive in the wither area and the low thoracic area, what would be the likely cause
saddle fit, unbalanced rider
If you find an adhesion in the middle gluteal muscle, explain how you would perform massage to treat it.
Start with logan basic to relax all muscle then start with effleurage in the area warming the muscle then apply friction to help break down adhesion and use a tool if needed and excepted for pressure. Then apply effleurage to move the fluid out.
What assessment techiques might you use to see if a horse has the ability to bend to both the left and right?
Flexing the head is a movement performed to check for misalignment of the jaw. True or False
Checking the spaces between the mandible and the atlas is called the motion palpation test. True or False
When extending the head to the left and then the right side, you find it is heavier and more resistant to the left, this means the high or closed sideof the atlas is on the right. True or False
If the atlas was high on the horse's left, to perform a dorsal arch move you would?
Place his jaw on your right shoulder, place your hands above and over the top of the atlas, turn the horse's head to the opposite side of the high atlas and thrust down.
While asking the horse to bring his nose to each shoulder you found he was more restricted to his right side and you found the TP of C3 was larger on his right side this would mean?
C3 is high on the left
If you found a spasm over a mammillary process on the horses right side, it would mean?
the SP of the lumbar vertebra had moved to the left.
If while performing a spring test on the right tuber coxae, you find little or no movement, this would mean?
The right side of the pelvis is stuck up.
To perform a manual manipulation if you found C3 was high on the right, you would?
Stand on the right side of the horse, place the pisiform of your hand on the top shelf of the vertebra, bring his head around to the right and impulse at a 45 degree angle toward the left ear while rotating your hand down.
To perform the logan basic technique on the horses right side, you would?
Place your right thumb at 1 o clock to the horses anus on the sacrotuberous liagment, apply pressure toward the ear on the same side and hold until you feel a release.
What is the vessel-rich bone producing membrane covering long bones is called?
What are the three bones that fuse and make up the pelvic bone are the?
Pubis, ilium, ishium
Ligaments attach _____ to bone.
Tendons attach ______ to bone.
Name three muscles commonly known as hamstrings?
Semitendinous, semimembranous, femoral biceps
The term origin is the end of the muscle that is attached to the ______ ________.
List four ways that massage effects the body.
- break down adhesions
- promote circulation
- help remove fluid in tissue space
- relieve pain
List five contraindications to massage
- over a wound
- acute injury
- over bone or joint
- over inflammation
- over heat
Name for uses (benefits) of effleurage.
- remove fluid from tissue space
- promote blood to area
- remove swelling
- improve movement
What are the two main benefits of friction?
Raises temperature by increasing blood flow and breaks down adhesions.
The term of flexing means?
Decreasing the angle of a joint. (closing of a joint)
When the cervical and thoracic serrated muscles on both the left and the right side contract at the same time when the horse is standing, what will occur?
holds up the horses body
A therapist is protracting the foreleg and encounters a restriction. What muscles might cause this restriction?
cervical serrated, cervical rhomboid, ascending pectoral and triceps
A therapist encounters a condition where several vertebrae in the lumbar spine have moved dorsal. What muscles might be causing this condition?
Longest dorsal, middle gluteal, iliocostal, caudal dorsal serrated.
As a horse is moving straight away, the therapist notices that the point of one hip is moving noticeably higher than the other. What three muscles might contribute to this condition?
Semimembranous, internal and external abdominal obliques and iliopsoas.
What three things could cause a horse to have difficulty initiating and maintaining a left lead?
A right hind issue, rib issues, and left shoulder issue
A therapist encounters a horse that moves freely without the saddle but shortens his stride or shows lameness after being saddled. List three muscles that could be involved?
Ascending pectoral, thoracic serrated, thoracic trap
A therapist encounters a horse that exhibits a pain response when palpating the trapezius (thoracic) and kidney area. What is likely the cause?
Poor saddle fit
The stomach walls secrete hydrochloric acid and pepsin. True or False
What usually happens to the fit of a saddle when you add an extra pad or a riser pad?
bridging or pressure on spine
The function of the small intestine is to?
To digest and absorb chyme from the stomach.