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Flashcards in Primary Cementing Deck (24)
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1

What is Primary Cementing

The introduction of a cementitious material or cement slurries into the annulus between casing and open hole or previous casing or both

2

Objetives for primary Cementing

Provide zonal isolation
Protect the casing string against corrosion
Support axial load of casing strings and strings to be run later
Support the borehole
Meet government regulations

3

The size of the casing depends on

The depth of the well
The size of the open hole
The drilling objective
The expected hydrostatic and formation pressures
The type of completion once the well is drilled.

4

Types of Casings

Conductor
Surface
Intermediate
Production Casing
Liners and Tie-Backs

5

Conductor Casing Purpose

Prevents washing out under the rig
Provides elevation for flow nipple
Protects shallow sands from contamination

6

Advantages of stab in cementing

Less cement contamination
Less channelling
Small displacement volume
Pump until cement to surface
Less job time (rig time)
Less cement

7

Outside Cementing (Top Job) key points

Bring cement to surface
Macaroni tubing used
Max. depth 250-300 ft
High friction pressures
Non-standard connections

8

Surface Casing purpose

Protect surface fresh water formation
Case off unconsolidated or loss areas
Provide a competent mechanical base for subsequent operations (BOP, casings, etc.)

9

The BOP Stack parts

Anular preventer
Blind rams
Shear rams
Pipe rams
Kill line
Choke line

10

Intermediate Casing(s) purpose

Isolate hole into workable sections
Seal off nonproductive, high-pressure zones above the zone of interest.

11

Two Stage Cementing key points

Separation and isolation of zones
Reduces hydrostatic
Can leave zone in the annulus uncemented (cement at TD and surface)

12

Production Casing(s) or Liner(s) purpose

Isolates the pay zone from other formations and the fluids in them.
Protective housing for production equipment.
Subsurface artificial lift
Multiple zone completion
Screens for sand control

13

Identification of casing

OD
Weight
Grade
Burst pressure
Collapse pressure
Thread type

14

Thread Types

8 Round
Buttress
VAM
Hydrill

15

Basic Cementing Process

Use the two-plugs method for pumping and displacement cement slurry down through the casing and up the annulus.
Process is completed when a pressure increase at the surface and displacement is terminated.
Leave the well shut in for a time to allow the cement to harden before completion work or drilling out

16

Cement Heads types

Conventional Cement Head
Deepsea EXPRES* Head

17

Conventional Cement heat types

Single-plug and Double-plug
Fabricated or Integral Heads

18

Evaluation of a Cement Job

Job evaluation is the comparison of job results versus the job objectives and, if different, the determination of the reason.

19

Squeeze operations objetives

Repair improper zonal isolation
Fill annulus to raise top of cement
Plug perforations to control water production
Repair corroded casing

20

Cement job design basics

Hole & casing capacities, Formation temperature & pressures, Static & dynamic hydrostatic pressures, Flow regimes, etc

21

Casing Hardware types

Shoes
Float Collars
Inner-String Cementing Equipment
Multiple Stage equipment & Baskets
Centralizers & Scratchers
Cementing Heads & Plugs

22

casing hardware definition

Casing Hardware refer to the equipment use on or within the casing string to enhance casing placement into the hole and cementing operation.

23

Not part of the BOP

Safety rams

24

Pin puller checks

Check Visually to ensure that it retracts and engages fully
count the number of turns before the cement head is loaded and stabbed