Primate evolution Flashcards Preview

Human Biology ATAR > Primate evolution > Flashcards

Flashcards in Primate evolution Deck (58)
Loading flashcards...
1

What is binomial nomenclature?

Uses generic (genus) and specific (species) names for the scientific name of a species

2

Categories list:

- Kingdom
- Phylum
- Class
- Order
- Family
- Genus
- Species

3

How are living organisms classified?

According to their structural features

4

Homosapiens

genus = homo
species = sapien

5

Organisms that produce fertile offspring

Must be from the same species

6

What does being in the same species presume?

That you are in the same genus

7

Sub-groups in the classification system

- Kingdom
- Phylum
o Sub-phylum
- Class
- Order
o Sub-order
o Infra-order
o Parv-order
o Super-family
- Family
o Sub-family
o Tribe
- Genus
- Species
o Sub-species

8

Types of primates

- Humans
- Apes
- Monkeys
- Tarsiers
- Lorises
- Lemurs
- Have some physical characteristics and DNA nucleotide sequences in common

9

What happens as you move down the hierarchy?

- Organisms in each group have more and more characteristics in common
- Start to have very similar DNA sequences

10

Classification of humans

- Classified into the family: hominidae
- Share this family with the great apes (e.g. Gorillas, Chimps and Orang-utans)
- Sub-family: homininae and share this subfamily with Chimpanzees and extinct humans
- Tribe: Hominini and share this tribe with the extinct humans

11

Binomial name for Orang-utans

Ponginae

12

Binomial name for Gorillas

Gorillini

13

Binomial name for Chimpanzee

Panini

14

Examples of lower primates

Non-tarsiers - Leumurs
Prosimians

15

Primate groups

Lower primates

Tarsiers

Higher primates

16

Examples of higher primates

New worldmonkeys - spider monkeys

Old world monkeys - baboons

Lesser apes - gibbons

Great apes - orang-utans, gorillas and chimpanzees

Humans - modern and extinct humans

17

Classification of primates

Kingdom = animal
Phylum = chlordate
Subphylum = vertebrate
Class = mammal
Order = primate

18

Characteristics of primates (15)

1. Unspecialised body
2. Unspecialised limbs
3. Pentadactyl (5 limbs)
4. Nails instead of claws
5. Grasping digits with friction ridges
6. Opposable first digit
7. Forward facing eyes (stereoscopic vision)
8. Colour vision
9. Reduced sense of smell
10. 4 incisors in top and bottom jaws
11. Relatively large and complex brain
12. Larger cerebrum in more complex primates
13. Can reproduce throughout the year
14. Rhythmical sexual cycle
15. Usually one offspring at a time
16. Long period of parental care

19

Strepsirrhini

Lemurs and Lorises

20

Tarsiformes

Tarsiers

21

Platyrrhini

New world monkeys

22

Cercopithecoidea

Old world monkeys

23

Hylobatidae

Simangs and gibbons

24

Pongids

Orang-utans

25

Panini

Chimpanzees

26

Hominini

Humans

27

Types of evolutionary trends

1. Digits
2. Dentition
3. Relative size of the cerebral cortex
4. Gestation (duration of pregnancy) and parental care
5. Vision

28

Evolution of digits

- Primates are pentadactyl (5 digits on each limb)
- Digits are highly mobile due to arboreal ancestry
- Digits are prehensile = grasping
- The evolutionary trend is toward increasing the ability to move digits

29

The thumb

- Most highly evolved digit
- Independent and opposable
- The degree of opposability varies

30

What do humans lack?

An opposable big toe