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Flashcards in Princeton review 5 Deck (33):

What is functionalism

Conceptualizes society as a living organism with many different parts and organs, each of which as a dictinct purpose. The approach focuses on the social functions of different structures by seeing what they contibute to society at large. 


Who was E‛mile Durkheim ?

He was considered the father of sociology, the pioneer of modern social research and established the field as dictinct from psychology and political philsosphy 

  • he believed that modern societies are more complex than primitive societies 


What is Dynamic Equilibrium ? 

Durkheim had proposed that complex socieities involved many different but interdependant parts working together to maintain stability 


What are social facts ?

Elements that serve some function in society as laws, morals, values, religions, customs, rituals, and rules that make up a society 


Manifest functions vs latent functions 

  • The intended and onbvious consequences of a structure 
  • Unintended or less recognizable condequences,and can be considered benefecial, neutral, or harmful 


What is a social dysfunction

A process that has undesirable consequences and may actually reduce the stability of society. For example, the hospital may also increase an income gap between medical proffessionals in the community and others to create racial tensions through unfair hiring practices. 


Who is Karl marx ? 

Identified with this theory aka in charge of this theory. Looked at the economic conflict between different social classes. 

He argued that socieities progess through class struggle between those who own and control production and those who labor and provide the manpower for production. 



Who is Ludwig Gumplosiz ? 

Expanded upon Marxs idea by proposing that society is shaped  by war and conquest, and that cultural and ethnic conflicts leads to certain groups becoming dominant over others 


Who was Max Weber

Agreed with marx on inequaliteis in a capitalist system would lead to conflict but he did not believe the collapse of capitalism is inevitable; rather he argued that there could be more than one source of conflict, such as conflict over inequaltiies in political power and social status. 


Who are the 3 founding fathers of sociology ? 

  1. Emile Durkheim 
  2. Karl Marx 
  3. Max weber 


What is symbolic interactionism

Starts at the micro level and sees society as the buildup of these everyday typical interactions. This theory examines the relationship between individuals and society by focusing on communication 


Nuclear family ? Extended Family

  1. Consisting of direct blood relations 
  2. IN which grandparents, aunts and uncles are included. 


Monogamy ? Polygamy

  1. Refers to a form of marriage in which two individuals are married only to each other 
  2. Allows an individual to have multiple wives 


Endogamy ? Exogamy? 

  • Refers to the practice of marrying within a particular group 
  • A requirement to marry outside a particular group, with it being the norm in almost all cultures to prohibit sexual relationships between certain relatives 


What is kinship

How we think about who we are related to. Kin dont have to live together and its mostly considered a cultural group rather than a biological one. 


Patrilineal and matrilineal descent ? 

Paternal and Maternal relations 


Patriarchy, matriarchy, and egilatarian family

  • Men have authority over women 
  • Women have authority over men 
  • Spouses are treated as equal and may be involved in more negotiation when making decisons 


What are the forms of these religious organiziations

  1. Ecclesia : A dominant religious organization that includes most members of society, is recognized as the national or the official religion, and tolerates no other religions. Like countries Sweden and Iran 
  2. Church: A type of religious organization that is well-integrated into the larger society. Church membership tends to occur by birth but most churches allow people to join 
  3. Sect: a religious organization that is distinct from that of larger society. They are formed as breaking away from larger religious insitutions. Over time sects may develop into churhces. Example is like the mormon community and Amish community 
  4. Cult/new religious movements: A religious organization that is far outside societys norm and often involves a very different lifestyle. Cult members have a bad reputation and are quickly judged by society to be "crazy" but remember christianity started as a cult. 


What is rational-legal authority


Traditional authority ? Charismatic authority

  • Other government use this, which is because of customs, traditons, or accepted practice 
  • Power of persuasion like MLK 


What is Socialism ? What is the driving force in socialist societies ? 

A economic system where resources and production is collectively owned. it includes a system of distributioin and production designed to satisfy human needs. 

  • Collective goals : everyone is given a job, and everyone is provided with what they need to survive. In these societies the economy is centrally controlled and run by the government. 


What is welfare capitalism ? 

A system in which most of the economy is private with the exception of extensive social welfare programs to serve certain needs within society. 


What is state capitalism

A system in which companies are privately run, but work closely with the government in forming laws and regulations. In the U.S states, most businesses are privately owned but the government runs operations too like libraries, museasums. 



What is a food desert

Area typically in a highly populated lower income urban environment, where healthy, fresh food is difficult. for example you wont see whole foods there which focuses on healthy produce 


What is sociobiology

Study of how biology and evolution have affected human social behavior. it applies Darwins principle of natural selection to social behavior, suggesting there is a biological basis for many behaviors. That is particular social behavior persists over generations because they are adaptive for survival. 


What is Demography ? 

The study of human population dynamics, including the size, structure, and distributiuon of a population and changed in a population over time due to birth, death, and migration. 

An analysis of the demographics of a given society can provide powerful information about many sociological phenonmenon. 


Fecundity ? Replacement level fertility ? 

Potential reprodiuctive capactiy of a female 

  • Refers to the number of children that a woman or couple must have in order to replace the number of the people in the population who die; sub-placement fertility indicates that the birth rate is not high enough to match the death rate 


What is urbanization

Refers to the growth of urban areas(as people move from rural to urban areas) as the results of a global change. urbanization is tied to industrialization, and industrialized countries have more people living in urban areas than non-industrialized countries do. 


What is environmental justice

Refers to the fact that people in poorer communities are more likely to be subjected to negative environmental impacts to their health and well-being, such as a large pollution generating power plant near their neighborhoods. 


What is cultural capital

Refers to the non-financial social assets that promote social mobility. Education is a excellent example of cultural capital; an education gives someone the potential to be upwardly mobile ( though there a lot of inequalities in U.S) 


What is social epidemiology ? Health-care disparities ? 

The study of the distribution of health and disease across a population with the focus on using social concepts to explain patterns of health and illness in a population. 

  • Include the population specific differences in the presence of disease, health outcomes, and quality of healthcare across different social groups.