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Flashcards in Princeton review 4 Deck (18):

What are warning colors

Bright colors meant to advertise to predators that an organism is toxic or noxious. 



What is evolutionary game theory ? 


What is foraging behavior ? 

Foraging behavior must fulfill two goals. The first is to gain enough energy to support growth, development, and reproduction. The second is to gain the right nutrients. The obvious energy-rich foods are carbohydrates and fats. 




What are scape goats ? 

The unfortunate people at whom displaced aggression is directed. Like the jews, blacks, and women throughout history. 


Descibe Kohlberg's stages of moral development 

In expansion of Jean's Piagets theory, includes six identifiable develpmental stages of moral reasoning. 

  • Each stage is very crucial because its a new perspective and understanding from each stage is integrated and moved on to the next one. 



What is illusory correlation


Informational influence ? 

Normative influence ? 

  • In group discussions, the most common ideas to emerge are the ones that favor the dominant viewtype. This serves to persuade others to take a stronger stance toward this viewpoint and provides an oppurtinity to rehearse and validate these similar options, firther strengthening them. 
  • Based on social desirability, that is wanting to be accepted and admired by others 


What is illusory contours

Visual illusions that evoke the perception of an edge without a color across that edge 




What is frustration aggression principle ? 

Suggests that when somone is blocked from achieving a goal, this frustration can trigger anger, which can lead to aggression. 


What is Assimilation and amalgamtion ? 

The process in which an individual foresakes aspects of his or her own cultural tradition to adopt those of a different cultrure. Generally, this individuals is a member of a minority group who is attempting to conform to the culture of the dominant group. 

  • Occurs when majority and minority groups combine to form a new group


What is object relations theory ? 

Its a variation of psychoanalytic theory that diverges from sigmund freuds theory but instead humans thrive for close contact in relationships- we need to form relationships  


What is the optisim biasJust world phenomenon ? 

Bad things happen to other people, but not to me. The world is fair and it impacts about how we think about others. 

  • The world is fair and people get what they deserve. When bad things happen to other people, its because they deserve it 


what is mere exposure effect

A psychological phenomenon whereby people feel a preference for people or things simply because they are familiar. Also known as the exposure effect and the familiarity principle. This is interesting because it has no basis in logic. Just because we see a stranger occasionally does not make them any more trustworthy…we just feel like they are because we “know” them.




Inclusive fitness ? 

Altruistic behavior ? 

 theory in evolutionary biology in which an organism’s genetic success is believed to be derived from cooperation and altruistic behaviour. Inclusive fitness theory suggests that altruism among organisms who share a given percentage of genes enables those genes to be passed on to subsequent generations

  • Altruism or selflessness is the principle or practice of concern for the welfare of others.


What are sanctions ? 

rewards and punishments for behaviors that are accord with or against norms. In some countries sharing your food to strangers is a sign of respect but in US its a sign of just being weird 


What is echoic memory

Its part of the sensory memory inputs, but this is auditory. Where the memory lasts about 1-2 secs. 




What is the self-reference effect

 A phenomenon of memory that causes an individual to encode information differently depending on the degree of personal involvement in the sequence of events being encoded. 


What is Canonical perspective ? 

A standard or preferred way of viewing an object by researcher Stephen Palmer