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1

what is the difference between endotoxins and exotoxins

Exotoxins are secreted by bacteria where as endotoxins are only released following lysis of the cell.
EXO G+
ENDO G-

2

when does cleavage occur?

24 hours

3

when does implantation occur?

day 6

4

what is gastrulation and when does it occur?

gastrulation is the formation of germ layers, which occurs at week 3

5

where does the primitive streak occur?

the caudal end of the epiblast

6

what does the hypoblast form?

endoderm

7

what does the epiblast form?

ectoderm

8

what will the notochord become?

spinal cord

9

When does the intraembryonic coelom form and what does it divide into?

week 3, visceral and lateral plate

10

what body cavities does the coelom divide into?

pleural, peritoneal and pericardial cavity

11

when does the normal heart start to develop?

week 4

12

the first cells of the heart and start germ layer they are derived from

cardiac progenitors, derived from the visceral layer of lateral mesoderm

13

what does the 1st and 2nd heart field give rise to?

1st- right and left atria, and LV
2nd- RV and outflow tract

14

when does looping of heart occur

day 23

15

name regions of the heart tube after day 23 and how they move into position and what they give rise to

truncus arteriosus- aorta and PT
bulbus cordis- outflow tract + Trabeculated part of RV (moves ventral, caudal and right)
ventricle- Trabeculated LV (moves left)
atria- Trabeculated LA and RA
sinus venosus- smooth part of RA, coronary sinus (moves dorsal and cranial)

16

what structure allows communication between RA and LA until birth

foramen ovale

17

name 2 atrial septa and their character

septum primum (flexible)
septum secondum (rigid)

18

when does the septum primum form and its direction of growth

day 30
grows down towards endocardial cushion

19

Name of gap between septum primum and endocardial cushion

primary ostiem/ foramen

20

when does the septum secondum form and position compared to septum primum

day 33
to right of SP

21

what is the valve of the foramen ovale formed by?

septum primum

22

what does the foramen ovale become in adult

fossa ovalis

23

conditions associated with teratology of the fallot

pulmonary stenosis, RV hypertrophy ventricular septal defect, over riding aorta, patent ductus arteriosus

24

describe 2 ventricular septa

membranous- grows down from endocardial cushion
muscular- grows up from ventricle

25

basic unit of the Nervous System

neuron

26

collection of neurons in CNS

nucleus

27

collection of neurons in PNS

ganglion

28

myelin sheath in CNS

oligodendrocyte

29

myelin sheath in PNS

schwann cell

30

name cranial nerves 1-12 and their function

olfactory nerve- special sensory
optic nerve- special sensory
occulomotor- motor
trochlear- motor
trigeminal- both
abducent- motor
facial- both
vestibulococlear- special sensory
glossopharyngeal-both
vagus-both
spinal accessory-motor
hypoglossal-motor

31

where does each cranial nerve enter in each fossa

CN1- anterior fossa
CNII-CNVI- middle fossa
CNVII- CNXII- posterior fossa

32

name foramen for each cranial nerve

CNI- cribiform plate of ethmoid bone
CNII- optic canal
CNIII, CNIV, V1 and VI- superior orbital fissure
CNV2-foramen rotundum
CNV3- foramen ovale
CNVII, VIII- internal acoustic meatus
CNIX-XI - Jugular foramen
CNXII- Hypoglossal canal

33

Where does spinal cord pass through in head

foramen magnum

34

what protects the spinal cord

vertebral canal

35

divisions of spinal cord and how many nerves

31 nerves in total
cervical (8)
thoracic (12)
lumbar (5)
sacral (5)
coccygeal (1)

36

where does the spinal cord end and name for this

spinal cord ends at L1/L2 conus medullaris

37

2 enlargements of spinal cord

cervical
lumbosacral
(more nerves for limbs)

38

what is the cauda equina

when lumbar and sacral spinal roots descend in vertebral canal to their intravertebral formen and look like a horses tail

39

where do nerves enter spinal cord

intravertebral foramen (spinal nerve)

40

how many vertebrae for each division of spine

33 in total
7 cervical
12 thoracic
5 lumbar
5 sacral
4 coccygeal

41

what are spinal nerves named according to + exception

spinal nerves are named according to vertebrae above it

except for cervical region where they are named according to vertebrae below it - C8 which lies between C7 and T1

42

course of sensory nerves

rami to the spinal nerve then through the dorsal root ganglia, then to posterior root then to posterior rootlets- posterior horn of spinal nerve

43

course of motor nerves

from anterior horn of spinal cord - anterior rootlets- anterior roots- spinal nerve- rami

44

dermatome that contains nipple

T4

45

Dermatome of umbilicus

T10

46

What are dermatomes

areas of skin supplied by both anterior and posterior rami of spinal nerves

47

what is a nerve plexus

nerve plexus= intertwinning to anterior rami of spinal nerves (not posterior rami)

48

name 4 nerve plexus, the anterior rami and what they supply

cervical plexus- C1-C4- posterior scalp, neck wall and diaphragm
brachial plexus- C5-T1 anterior rami- upper limbs
lumbar plexus- L1-L4- lower limbs
Sacral plexus L5-S4 anterior rami- lower limbs, gluteal region and perineum

49

what is ischaemic pain due to

lack of blood blow

50

what is colicky pain due to

obstruction

51

what receptors sense pain

nociceptors

52

difference in what sympathetics and parasympathetics supply

sympathetics supply internal organs, body walls and arterioles. parasympathetics only supply internal organs

53

outflow of sympathetics at spinal cord

T1-L2

54

Parasympathetic outflow

CN II, VII, IX, X
sacral nerves II, III, IV

55

how do sympathetics get to the head and neck

hitch a ride with the arteries

56

how do sympathetics reach lower organs

splanchnic nerves

57

which parts of spinal cord have lateral horns

T1-L2

58

what do parasympathetic nerves in the head supply

lacrimal and salivary glands

59

what does the vagus nerve supply and where does it travel as far to

organs of head, neck and abdomen, as far as the mid - gut

60

what do the sacral nerves supply

hindgut, pelvis, perineum