Flashcards in Principles of motor learning Deck (47)
What was the set-up of the goal setting experiment?
4 groups of college men had goals for elbow flexion
2 had realistic goals
1 had unrealistic goal
1 had no goal
In the goal setting experiment, which group had the best performance
the one with unrealistic/ most difficult goal
What did the goal setting experiment show?
Goals are a strong form of motivation.
What was set up of Locke and Bryan study?
Subjects asked to manipulate hand and foot controls to match set of light patterns.
one asked to do your best and other group given a task to strive for.
What was results of Locke and Bryan study?
Group with task obtained more matches and improved quicker.
Goal setting helps define
the problem to be solved.
What are the clinical assumptions/implications of goal setting?
set goals slightly above what patient can do for greater improvement.
Providing choices (autonomy) enhances
Which choices are more effective? small incidental or major, task controlled??
Visual demonstration of a skill to those who are learning the skill?
What is the purpose of visual demonstration?
to begin to form a neural representation of skill that serves as a standard for error detection and correction.
These fire both when an animal acts or when they observe the same action being performed
What does mirror neuron experiment show?
modeling a skill is beneficial to learning a skill.
how do you make demonstration effective?
-Use verbal instruction to direct learned to specific action (look at heels)
-Model the skill before practice and during.
The visual system picks up salient info from a model and provides what?
the motor system with basis for coordination and controlling of movement.
In extrinsic feedback, what is KR and KP
knowledge of results
knowledge of performance.
Feedback from a source other than from from the learner... is it intrinsic?
no. not intrinsic
Information or feedback about the Outcome/success of movement in terms of the movement goal?
does it matter how it looks?
Knowledge of Results
What is knowledge of results used to for?
-to confirm own assessments
-needed when intrinsic not present
-promotes active learning
Information about the characteristics or kinematics of movement used to achieve goal?
does it matter if goal was achieved?
Knowledge of performance.
Knowledge of performance important for?
-skills requiring specific movements (kinetic/kinematic/muscular)
According to gentile, KP might be better ____ but KR ____-
What are the different ways to structure KR and KP feedback?
Reduce frequency of feedback
Augmented feedback provided while a person is performing a skill or making movement
Strength and weakness of concurrent feedback?
may enhance performance through motivation but may produce dependency and degrade learning.
Reducing feedback by providing feedback for a certain number of trials at completion of those trials?
Strength and weakness of summary feedback?
not good for performance but good for learning (opposite of concurrent..)
Summary feedback is more beneficial to learning when compared to
What did Weinstein and Schmidt do?
looked at 100% feedback condition vs. 50 % observing root mean square results.
What were results of Weinstein and Schmidt study?
they were similar during the trials but the 50% feedback group had less errors during retention tests.
Decreasing frequency of augmented feedback by systematically reducing the frequency during course of practice so person is weaned from depending on feedback?
giving more feedback in beginning and weaning off is beneficial for
Fading feedback reduces what in later practice?
a form of feedback given only if the performance is outside a given area of acceptability?
Bandwidth feedback enhances
What happened in shea and wolf study?
4 groups maintained balance on stabilometer
-2 groups told to focus on feet and marker.
-2 groups given feedback from computer.
What did the delayed retention test of Shea and Wolf study show?
External focus of attention enhanced learning.
Shea and wulf study showed that internal focus can what?
hinder learning and retention.
external focus during vertical leap? its effect?
high jump and greater displacement.
With PTs during gait training __ used internal focus
____ used external
What are the positive effects of feedback?
-guide learner away from error
-indicate what went wrong and what should be done next time
-can motivate learner
What are the negative effects of frequent feedback?
interfere with capability of learner to acquire error detection capabilities.
-produce short-tern corrections that may hinder pt from developing patters needed for retention
-learner won't attempt to cognitively solve problem.
when giving verbal feedback, must specifically
describe error in terms of KP or KR.
The learner is physical guided through task to be learned?
In manual guidance experiment, what was done?
guiding and KR to distribute weight to feet at 70/30%.
4 groups 100% and 33% guided and KR
Who had most accurate performance in manual guidance experiment.?
what does this show?
33% KR group
100% Guidance group did worst
unguided practice is beneficial for learning.