Flashcards in Schedules of practice Deck (50)
Structure of session
The influence that practice of one task has on other subsequent tasks?
Transfer of training.
What is the specificity of practice principle?
Trasnfer depends on similarity between 2 task requirements and 2 environments.
What did DEAN do in his study?
examined whether training program designed to increase sitting balance after stroke would transfer to other tasks (ambulation)
SPECIFICITY OF PRACTICE.
What were both groups doing in DEANS experiment?
Control: did seated tasks within arm reach.
Experiment: distance and direction/speed. varied in sitting.
What were results of DEAN experiment?
exp. group: reached further
increased load on LE and muscle activation
*DID NOT IMPROVE AMBULATION
What does DEAN study show?
Task was more specific to STS than ambulation.
Practice on some components of whole task as pre-training for performance of the whole task?
Ex: Weight shift for gait.
Learner starts with less difficult versions of task, gradually transitioning to more difficult version?
What did Winstein investigate?
concept of how working on weight shifting impacted ambulation .
What did groups do in winsteins trial?
Control: Standard PT
exp: Standard PT and additional standing balance weight shift practice.
Results of Winstein Trial?
Both groups improved in ambulation but weight shift group not better.
group with additional weight shift had more symmetrical standing posture.
Part task must be natural ____ to be effective for retraining
subpart of whole task
Refers to the variety of movement and context characteristics a
learner experiences while practicing a skill
Tasks have ____ within them.
why is this important?
need to be able to handle variability for learning.
Successful future performance may depend on
amount of variability learner experiences in practice.
What was variable vs. constant practice?
subjects knocked over barrier within 200 ms. 300x a day.
both did from distance of 15/35/60/65 cm
variable group hand random order.
transfer test done after at 50 cm.
What was result of constant vs variable group?
what does this show?
Constant had less error at training but more during transfer test.
Variablity generates Generalizability.
Variability in practice allows subjects to
learn task more effectively.
Rehearsing many possible variations of a movement essentially facilitates
transfer of skill to novel situation.
Learner performs same skill repeatedly. Works on a
specific skill for a block of trials before moving on to different skill
Learner performs multiple different tasks in random
What happened in blocked vs. random practice trial?
Subjects practiced 3 badminton serves.
blocked group did 1 serve each day
random group did random each day.
What were results of blocked vs. random trial?
Random group had higher accuracy with better retention.
What can we interpret for blocked vs. random practice trial?
Blocked good for performance.
Random good for retention/learning.
Deeper cognitive processing seems to degrade initial performance but
more difficult task=better learning.
Context factors that make task more difficult initially seem to
help learning in longrun.
Who studied motor learning after stroke and what did they investigate?
blocked vs. random practice on post-stroke.
What was done in Hanlon's study?
3 groups use affected side to complete 5 steps of grabbing cup.
Control: no practice
Blocked: Repeat 5x
Random: each trial alternated with 3 tasks:
pointing/touching object/touch table.
Variable vs. Random
Variable: changing context/ adding
Order of contextual interference?
talk this over with urself .
What happened in task practice of adults with PD?
control had less error than PD.
PD patients have difficulty switching sequences.
Findings in healthy subjects translated to ____ but not _____
a skill performed in a stable or predictable environment where
the performer determines when to begin the action
Closed motor skill.
a nonstable unpredictable environment where object or
environmental context is in motion and determines when to begin the action
Open motor skill.
fewer practice sessions than a distributed schedule, each session
requires longer practice
distributes same amount of practice over more sessions, with each
Distributed practice schedule.
Involves asking a subject to spend a lot of time thinking
about or imagining the action being performed without producing any action
Who ran mental practice study and what did they do?
practice throwing ball from cup to target then experiment group visualized movement.
Results of MARING mental practice study?
both groups decreased error but experiment group had smaller errors.
Muscle firing patterns of Mental practice?
-more efficient firing pattern
-decreased time from onset to peak activity
-increased time between onset of agonist to antagonist
Mental practice can be an important adjunct in
acquiring a motor skill.
What are the benefits of Mental practice?
-cognitive elements (actively plan)
-Motor program with low gain (trigger at low level)
-Supplementary cortex activation during mental practice.
What did ROLAND study?
supplemental brain activity from mental practice.
What did subjects in roland's study do?
-subjects fl/ex indent finger causing BF increase in motor and sensory
-thumb opposition in diff sequence result increase BF s/m and supplementary cortex
-Subject mentally rehearse complex task result increase BF in supplementary cortex.
What was done to compare physical and mental practice?
perform max isometric DF mentally and physically.
What was result and conclusion of comparison of physical and mental practicE?
Improvement 25% physical 17% mental
mental practice good adjunct to physical practice.
Motor learning paradigms? (BEHAVIOR COMPONENTS)
Neural plasticity paradigms