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Flashcards in Motor skill learning Deck (38)
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1

the goal of practice is to develop the capacity to do what?

to produce skill at diff time/place/setting.. making it generalized.

2

Who wrote first book on motor control and learning?

schmidt.

3

Motor learning is a set of processes associated with _______

what does it lead to?

practice

leads to relatively permanent changes.

4

gives us accuracy from beginning as well as difference between groups consistency of movement.

performance curve.

5

what does a negatively accelerated performance curve show?

rate of learning faster change in beginning than end.

6

What is the purpose of retention tests?

test patient at later time to see if they retained info.

interested in permanent changes.

7

Purpose of transfer tests?

transferring knowledge from one setting to another.

transfer to real life.

8

What are the 3 ways of measuring performance and learning?

performance curve
Retention test
and transfer test

9

What are ways of measuring performance and learning in a clinical situation?

daily notes (performance curve)
Functional outcomes (retention test)
Generalizability of task.

10

Open vs closed movement.

open: hitting baseball
closed: hitting golf ball

11

What are the stages of skill acquisition and who are founders?

Cognitive phase
Associative Phase
Autonomous phase

Fitts and Posner.

12

In the cognitive phase of skill acquisition there is emphasis on

conscious processing and verbalizing of task requirements.

a lot of errors and performance is variable.

13

In the associative phase of skill acquisition, What has been learned?

basic fundamentals

14

the associative phase is the beginning of

an internal spatial temporal reference of movement.

15

In associative phase, Performance is ____

less variable
more accurate

more work on refining the skill

16

In the autonomous phase of skill acquisition, the skill has

become automatic, can be performed without much attention

17

in autonomous phase, errors are

easily detected and corrected.

18

In bernsteins model of skill acquisition, emphasis is on controlling

Degrees of freedom in movement.

19

What are the 3 stages of bernsteins model of skill acquisition

Novice (simplify mvmnt. less DOF)
Advanced stage (add DOF)
Expert( All DOF. task most coordinated)

20

Gentiles 2 stage model describes ____ of the learner at each stage

the goal

21

What is the goal in stage 1 of Gentiles model?

Learner develops understanding of task. getting idea of goal, strategies, demands.

22

What is the goal of stage 2 in Gentiles model?

to refine movement. called fixation/ diversification.

23

General stages of skill acquisition require

gradual progression
negative accelerating pattern
practice.

24

Time and ant of cigar rolls needed to reach peak speed?

2 years= 100,000 rolls.
improvement slowed after but continued

consistency

25

What are the aspects of skill?

who though this?

Consistency
Flexibility
Efficiency
taxonomy of skill
closed/open


Gentile

26

can be defined as a set of rules

schema

27

how are schemas developed

by abstracting important info from related experiences and combining them into a rule.

28

environment, position of body plus movement goal

initial conditions.

29

environment and goal are 2 conditions that will put out

specific movement specifications.

30

generalized motor programs, limbs, environment, movement outcome are _____

Response specifications

you start to get sensory feedback

31

What are the sensory consequences from the response specifications??

form cutaneous system and proprioception through visual and auditory feedback as well as extrinsic feedback (KR/KP)

32

What is the measured outcome/ knowledge of results feedback in schmidts motor response schema?

error detection and refinement.

33

Changes that occur as learner progresses through stages of learning?

neural, biochemical, and behavioral changes.

34

what changes first, accuracy or velocity?

accuracy

35

Examples of changes that occur as learner progresses?

limb coordination
muscle activation
vision
kinematic characteristics

36

Who studied changed in brain upon normal learning?

Karni

37

What was the task in karin's experiment?

do thumb opposition at certain sequence and time it/ measure error/ count sequences.


38

What were results of Karnis task?

at first movement was great then slowed. but control did not change

fMRI showed more neural activity in trained sequence.

Motor practice induced recruitment of more units.