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Flashcards in Protein Synthesis Inhibtors Deck (22):

What are the two families of 30 S inhibitors

(list bacteriostatic or bacteriocidal)

Aminoglycosides (cidal irreversibly bind)

Tetracyclines (bacteriostatic reversibly bind)


What are the four families of 50S inhibitors 

(list bacteriostatic or bacteriocidal)

Macrolides (bacteriostatic)

Clindamycin (bacteriostatic)

Chloramphenicol (bacteriostatic)



List 5 Aminoglycoside drugs 







aminoglycosides are more effective aginst what than any other antibioitc class

why then are they not always used for that?

Gram negative aerobes

often times are more toxic then alternatives so are saved for serious infections resistant to those less toxic drugs


Aminoglycosides are only effective against ____ class when combined with ____

Few gram pos organisms 

when combined with CWSI's 


What group of organisms are aminoglycosides not effective against and why


because they requrie oxygen dependent transport process to enter the cell


what is the chemistry of aminoglycosides and what does that mean about their absorption

they are amino sugars meaining they are extensively ionized in acidic fluids


This means poor bioavailability when administered orally so 

must be given parenterally for systemic infections

Can be good orally for gi infections (because trapped in gi)

Can be used topically for skin mucous membranes and ocular tissues


What drug are aminoglycosides used in combo with and why


allows the ag to enter the bacteria and synergistically allows more activity against both gram postive and gram negative


What is the main route and time of elimination of aminoglycosides

Glomerular filtration primarily

Half life 2-3 hours


Which aminoglycosides can be used in a TB infection

Streptomycin and Amikacin


Which populations would need to avoid Aminoglycosides

Pregnant women (pregnancy category D drug)

Individuals with low creatinine clearance


What is the mechanism by which drugs become resistant to Aminoglycosides

Bacterial acetylase, adenylase, and phophorylase enyzmes 

(degrade the aminoglycoside and prevent its binding to its site)

(could also decrease drug accumulation through porin mutation)
(could also alter target site to decrease the binding to the 30S ribosome)


Which aminoglycoside is more resistant to bacterial resistance mechanism


( it is protected at more sites than gentamicin and tobramicin)


List 4 major adverse effects of aminoglycosides 

  1. Nephrotoxicity
    • causes tubular necrosis by accumlating in renal cortical cells
    • usually reversible 
  2. Ototoxicity
    • accumulates in peri/endolymph of the ear when AG levels are elevated, can be irreversible
  3. Levels must be adjusted/monitored closely to prevent toxicity
    • single daily dosing
  4. Toxicity increased in combo w/ other nephrotoxic or ototoxic  agents 


define the mechanism of action of the aminoglycosides and the tetracyclines

Aminoflycosides: bind to the initiations site of the 30s and prevent formation of the initiation complex

Tetracyclines: inhibits the binding of tRNA to the A site of the 30S ribosome


how are tetracyclines absorption affected and how are they distributed

  • Absorption affected by Food
    • Tetracyclines: all foods decreas absorption
    • Doxy and Minocycline: food DOES NOT decrease absorption
  • Absorption Decreased by polyvalent Cations (dairy, calcium, iron, antacids)
  • Distirbution: well distributed but does not cross BBB (except Minocycline)


How are teetracyclines eliminated

Tetra and Mino: Renal and Biliary


Doxy: Biliary


what are the main adverse effects of tetracyclines (6)

  • Concentrates in growing teeth and bones (contra in kids less than 8 and pregnant women-category D0
  • Allergi Reactions
  • Dermatologic (phtosensitivity-accum in skin   hyperpigmentation with minocycline)
  • Hepatotoxicity (fatty liver- high incidence in pregnancy)
  • Ototoxicity (minocycline)
  • GI issues
    • GI upset N/V/D (less for mino and doxy
    • GI flora 
      • superinfecctions and drug drug interactions
  • May make oral contraceptives less effective 


what are the main mechanisms of resistance against tetracyclines

Decreased Drug accumulation

Altered Target site

Enzymatic drug inactivation


Important resistant organism: Psuedomonas


what are 2 main similarities and 2 main differences between the tetracyclines

  • Similarities
    • antimicrobial spectrum
    • all bind divalent and trivalent cations so their avialability is dec with food containing cations
  • Differances 
    • oral bioavailability 
      • 70% tetracycilnes (10 hr half life)
      • >90% doxy and mino (15 and 19 respectively)
    • intensity of adverse effects
      • tetra has most effect on teeth and bone
      • doxy has most photottoxicity
      • mino has most ototoxicity (and is only one to cross bbb)


what are the similarities and differences between tigecycline and tetracyclines


Chemistry and pharmacokinetics to tetracyclines


parenteral only

longer half life (27-42 hours)

biliary excretioon

Binds with affinity 5x that of tets (though to same region of the 30S