On March 1917, why was the provisional government set up?
- Until elections for constituent assembly(parliment) was set up and ppermanaent government set up
Who was the pm of provisional government and who did the cabinet include?
PM- Prince Lvov
Milyuknov - Foreign Minister, Cadet leader
Kerensky - MInister of Justice, SR
Guchkov - War minister, Leader of Octoborists
How did the Bolsheviks view the Prov Government?
- Initially supported them, believed proleteriat would benefit under democracy
- In future believed that proleteriat would be able to sieze power from middle class
What were the Prov Government’s first reforms?
- Free religion
- Free speech
- Elected governemnt
- NO more secret police
What were some early problems Prov government faced?
- Not truly elected
- Defeats in war
- Peasants looting property of landlords
- Soldiers & workers set up elected counicl, soviet
What was the Prov government’s most serous issue it faced?
- Petrograd Soviet of Workers’, early march had 3k elected members,mainly SRs and mensheviks
- Soviet and Prov gov meant there waas dual authority
- As time went on, Soviet, under Bolshevik influence attacked prov gov for continuing war - soviet wanted germany out russia, prov wanted to fight
What was the Soviet order 1?
- 1st March 1917, Soviet issued Order 1, Prov Gov orders weeronly biniding to military if Soviet approved - weking gov authirity
What did defeats in war to Gemrnay do in 1917?
- Despite Soviet order 1, Prov Gov continued war concerened with demands from Gemrnay
- Kerensky peruaded troops for JUne offensive, soviet agreed thinking Gemrnay would be driven out
- Defeats, increased unpopulairty of Prov Gov
- Gemrnay released exiled revolutionaries to start revolution, Lenin came in 1917 - who began call of overthrow of prov gov`
What was the ‘July days’?
- Prov Gov facing problems, war wasn’t going good, growth of sovietswas a problem - Dual power sharing was coming under strain
- Austrian front dispersed, soldiers fled back to Russia, July 3-6, soldiersand Bolseviks tried overthrow Prov Gov (July Days)
- Kerensky, MInister of war sent loyal troops to squash rebels killng many, Lenin fled Russia
Why was there growing discontent among Russians?
- Little seemed to change from Tsar abdication
Who was the new prime minister after “July Days”?
Kerensky appointed new PM
Who ordered the army to march on Petrograd in August?
Why did General Kornilov want to seize power in August 1917?
- Didnt agree wiht Petrograd Soviet wanting to end war
What was issued in the manifesto that Kornilov issued to win support and explain his aims?
- He attacked Bolsheviks in Petrograd Soviet
- Asked war to be continued
- Called for meeting of Constituent Assembly
Who did Kerensky ask to save him during the Kornilov Revolt?
- The Bolsheviks
On what condition did Lenin agree to help Kerensky in August 1917, during Kornilov Revolt ?
If Bolsheviks were freed from exile and give weapons
Why did Kernesky ask Bolsheviks for help?
- So there would be a considerabe force to oppose Kornilov in Petrograd
Why did the Kornilov Revolt fail?
- Railway workers prevented Kornilov from entering Petrograd
- Printers stopped publicatonnewspaper supporting revolt
Where was Lenin exiled to after “July Days”?
What happened after Kornilov revolt failed?
-Kornilov was arrrested
What was the significance of th failed Kornilov revolt?
- Amry lost theircommander in chief, lostits morale and army was in no position to set up military dictator ship
- ## Kerensky Gov looked weak, Bolsheviks secured Petrograd soviet, they began to feel their time was approaching
After Feb Revolution 1917 why did Lenin want o go back to Russia?
- Wanted to put forward the messgae to his supporters that Bolsheviks wanted peace and chaos is Russia to end
How did Lenin get back to Russia in 1917?
- Germans helped him retur from exile in Switzerland, as they thought if Russia pulled out of war they could send troops to fight Britain and France
- ## Lenin put in sealed train and sent to Petrograd, he arrived at Finland Station
What was the price Lenin had to pay for using German help to come back to Russia 1917?
- Accused of being a German spy, Lenin as unconcerned though- he used German money to finnce his reovlution
What was the April thesis?
- He made it clar he opposed Prov Gov, he wanted a workers rev and his plans became known as April Thesis
What are few points form the April Thesis?
- War with Germany had to end
- POwer passed from middle to working classes
- Capitalist system had to be overthrown by wokrers, everyhting needed to be nationalised
- All land to peasants
- All power to soviets
How did Bolsheviks grow in 1917, by April?
- Memebership grew form 24k in Feb to 100k in April
- June nearly 40 newspapers spreading his views
- Had their own Red Guard
What was the Impact of July Days?
- By July, the Bolsheviks thought had grown enough to challenge PG,
- Kerensky accused the Bolsheviks of being German spies as he knew about the German funding.
- Lenin fled the country, the Bolshevik newspaper“Pravda” was taken down and all other leading Bolsheviks were arrested/denounced/deemed as traitors.
- Lenin directed aprty in Finland, his views changed “Peace, land and bread” attracted more followers, especially the army as soldiers were just “peasants in uniform”.
How muchhad the pupolarity og Bolsheivks grown by in October?
April - 100,000, October - 340,000
Why was time of Oct Rev perfect?
1) Lenin knew if they were in power before the elections of the Constituent Assembly, they could ignore them if they were unfavourable to the Bolsheviks
2) The All-Russian Congress of Soviets was due to meet in late October and if the Bolsheviks overthrew the PG, they could present their new authority as a “fait accompli”, which the congress would find very hard to reject.
What were Lenin’s action at beginningof October?
Lenin continued to remain in exile, but began calling for a revolution and returned to Petrograd on 7th October, remaining in hiding.
10th October - Lenin called the Bolshevik central committee meeting, but Kamanev and Zinoviev strongly voiced their objections in newspapers, warning Kerensky of the Bolshevik threat.
How did Kerensy inadventently set datefor Oct Rev?
- 23rd October, Kerensky tried to remove the Bolsheviks by closing down the Pravda and Izvestiya and rounding up leading figures
- Bolsheviks were forced into action/Lenin ordered them to begin the revolution before Kerensky could capture them : so, Kerensky had set the date of the Revolution : 24th OCTOBER 1917.
- PG had little authority by then : Peace, land and bread > inaction of Kerensky + PG.
What were the events of Oct Rev?
- Night of 24th October, the Bolsheviks captured key buildings (telegraph offices and railway stations) - road blocks were also set up on the city’s bridges and roads surrounding the winter palace, where the PG was in session.
- There was very little resistance and the city of Petrograd went about its everyday business. Kerensky managed to escape and tried to get some troops from the front line, but this failed.
- There were 6 deaths (soldiers) and 18 arrests and the collapse of the PG
Hod did Bolsheviks take control politically?
- All-Russian congress of Soviets was at the Smolny Institute - Bolsheviks had the most seats (390/650) but the SRs and Mensheviks condemned the Bolsheviks for the way they took over.
- Eventually, both parties left, strengthening the Bolsheviks position even further. Lenin formed a new Government Sovnarkom
What was the Sovnarkom?
Gov set up by Lenin, The Council of People’s Commissars (SOVNARKOM)
1 )Trotsky was Commissar of Foreign Affairs
2) Stalin was Commissar for Nationalities
Why did Trotsky become a Bolshevik?
- At time of Feb Rev, he was an exile menshevik, but when he returned May 1917, he was concerned Mensheviks were supporting PG
WHat roles did Trostky have?
- Elected as Petrograd Soviet Leader, when Bolsheviks took over Petrograd Soviet
- In October, dominant member of Military Revolutionary Comittee(MRC) - controlled 20k Red GUards, 60k balitc sailors, 150k soliders petrograd garrison
What’s Trotsky’s timeline?
1903 became a Menshevik
Returned to Russia in May 1917 (Menshevik exile)
Arrested in July 1917 as a result of his revolutionary activities
August 1917 - became an official party member
1917 - Chairman of Petrograd Soviet, memeber of MRC, Comissar of foreign affairs
1918 - Commissar for War
How did Lenin influence the war?
1) Persuaded Bolshevik to oppose the war - making them the only party to be right and stand out
2) April These consisted of simple yet powerful slogans that the peasants and Proletariats understood
3) Tremendous energy and vitality at every rally
4) Created the Red Guard and persuaded the MRC to seize power in October
How did Lenin secure control after the takeover of Oct REv?
Within a week of the Revolution in Petrograd, the Bolsheviks had control of Moscow and were securing control of the rest of Russia.
Lenin Timeline upto 1917
Brother hanged in 1887 - field his hatred for the Tsar
1897 - exiled to Siberia
1903 - led Bolsheviks in SD spilt (Bolsheviks and Mensheviks)
1917, April - April Theses
1917, July - Organised July Days and then October, Revolution
What were other reasons for Bolshevik’s success in Oct Rev?
- Weakness of PG
- Bolshevik control of armed forces
- Lack of Alternatives