In early 1917, there was massive discontent with the government, why was this?
- Russia was an autocracy, Tsar hadall the power so he did what he wanted The only parliment was the ‘Duma’ with little power
- 70% of population supported orthodox church, this taught Tsar was the divineruler of the country
- People had little freedom, opposition would be suppressed with okhrana secret police, newspapers were censored
The Tsar Nicholas II had weakenesses what were they?
- System of autocracy only works with a strong tsar controling government, Nihcolas was not a strong character
- Was ignorant to extent to opposition of tsarist regime and refused to share power
How was Russia’s industrial development by 1917?
- With rich land, full of minerals, the inustrialisation didn’t occur until end of 19th cent, far behind rest of europe
- Its size and underdeveloped system of transport along with ineffectie banking restricted growth
- By wwi, 1914, their coal ouput in Ukraine and oil output in Caucus had all gone up rapidly - coal and oil production went up tenfold
- Count Sergei, had task of modernising russia, aksed foreign experts for help, while it led to growth working conditions became awful discontetn with people
What happened on Sunday 22 Jan 1905?
- Bloody sunday, father Gapon led 200k peaceful protesters for better working conditions to Tsar winter palacce St Petersburg
- Tsar wasn’t present so soldiers panicked and let fire on corwd killing hundreds and wounding thousands
What did Bloody Sunday result in/
- Bloody sunday and loss to Japan in 1904 war sparked a revolution in Russia Feb 1905
- Strikes and mutiny in navy
What did Nicholas II do during revolution to avoid further chaos?
- ## He issued the October manifesto, this promised freedom of seech, end to censorship and a national parliment (duma)
What happened after 1905 rev regarding Stolypin?
- Nicholas appointed Peter Stolypin as PM
- Stolypin introduced reforms regarding agriculture and education, anyone opposing them were dealt with severly
- More than 3k deaths as Stolypin PM time, gallows became known as ‘Stolypin’s Necktie’
In the years after 1905 what was the failure of the Duma?
- After 1905, Nicholas ensured duma had little power, after first election, he declared he had power to dissolve it whenever he liked
- 4 different dumas between 1906-14
- He went against promisies of October manifesto, not sharing power, this stimulated opponents- mainly different political groups
Why did Rasputin cause more resentment from the political opposition to Tsarist regime?
- 1907, Nicholas and Alexandra, relied on holy man Rasputin for help and guidance, he had ability to control dangerous illness, haemophillia Alexei suffered from
- Tsar and Tsarina, called Rasputin ‘Our friend’, his position and power grew so much he helped choose government ministers
- Rumours about his hedontic lifestlye, like orgies circulated, he became ammunition for Tsarist opposition that didnt like the corrupt system
What was the industrial unrest in 1910s?
- Russia’s rapid growth led to bad working conditions leading to a wave of strikes before 1914
- Largest in 1912, where 200 were shot dead, this led to many strkes and a genral strike in St Petersburg
By 1917, what were the mian political groups that opposed Tsarist regime?
- Social Democratic Party
- Socialist Revolutionaries (SRs)
- The Octoborists
- Consitutional Democratic Party (CADETS)
What was the Social Democratic party?
- Founded 1901, followed Karl Marx teeachings, believed proleteriat would stage a revolution and remove Tsar, one day leading to communist state
- Divided into Bolsheviks, small party of elites led by Lenin and Mensheviks large group for led by Trotsy and Martov
What were th Social Revoltionaries party?
- Believed in revolution of peasant aimed to rid Tsar
- Wanted to share all land between peasants, so could be famred in small communities
- Some members used terrorism and killed many governemnt officials by 1917
Led by Kerensky
How did WW1 start and how was Russia involved?
- Heir to Austrian throne, Archduke Franz Ferdinand assasinated in Serbia June 1914, Austria- Hungary protected by Germany declared war on Serbia
- Russia protector of Serbia, mobilised troops to Serbia leading Germany to declare war on them in AUgust
What were the expectations of Russia for WW1?
- Entered with great expectations of success, believed size of Russia army ‘Russian Steamroller’ would be too big and strong
How was Russian army doing by 1916?
- By 1914, over 1 mil casualties
- BY 1916, suffered defeat after defeat, causing discontent wiht government and Tsar
What were the main reasons for defeat in 1914-1916?
- Por leadership of generals and officers
- Lack of infrastructure
- Lack of supplies and equipment
How did the many defeats affect the military in WW1?
- Casualities, poor equipment, frequent defeats lowered soldiers morale. Lost repect for officers, desertion was common
- Discontent spread to ppl of Russia, high casualities caused alarm in some areas, especialy Azerbajan- in Baku women lay on rails to stop trains
WHat were the economic and scoial effects of WW1?
- Inflation increased, 7 rises in 1913-17. Less food produced as less horses and labour
- 14mil men to frontlines 1914-17. Industry had lack of fuel and workers, cinsumer goods became scare and expensive
- Unemployment inreased, supplies also failed toreeach frontlines from inadequete transport system
- Petrograd suffered worst winter -30c along with food shortages, discontent grew
What were the political effects of war?
- Tsar moving to front lines was bad, Tsarina left in charge
- Tsarina didn’t listen tomiddle class duma, was also believed she as a German spy
- Rasputin was only person she trusted, he seemed to be in charge of Duma, she fired any competet ministers from Duma,, replaced with his friends, incompetet